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Outreach Research: A liaison between research and extension
MN Paudel
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v3i0.9011
Abstract: How outreach research has been passed through due course of time in Nepal is put forth. A model of linkages of outreach research in relation to technology dissemination as a liaison between research and extension in the Nepalese context has been shown in a broad perspective. Similarly, how technology is delivered from research station to farmers' fled in a participatory approach involving public-private-partnership through research-extension interphase is mentioned. Also, the relation of outreach research with extension from district to central level is illustrated. There is clear message that why technology generation do not tailor with the demand of client and every concerned institute should dare to accept pros and cons of agro-technology cycle to enhance agriculture and productivity to meet the food security of Nepalese people. This paper explains the limitation and opportunities of agriculture research and development which are not getting priority in a way these should be considered to take pace with present day demand.
Emergence of improved varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) as affected by different soil types and planting depths in Chitwan, Nepal
MN Paudel
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7539
Abstract: Improved open pollinated maize ( Zea mays L.) varieties exhibit different emergence reaction as a result of either inferior seed quality or affected by agronomic practices of maize planting. To address problem of low emergence percentage of maize varieties, an experiment was laid out in factorial design under two types of soil (red clay and sandy loam), three level of depth of sowing (7, 14 and 21 cm) for Rampur Composite, Manakamana-1 and Arun-2 maize varieties in Rampur, Chitwan for representing main season (May-August). The result of the experiment revealed that emergence count was highly significant for soil types and depth of sowing among the maize varieties tested. Manakamana-1 expressed lowest percentage (20 and 29%) followed by Arun-2 (22 and 33%) and Rampur Composite (24 and 39%) of emergence under red clay and sandy loam soils, respectively. Likewise, emergence count at 10 days after sowing was recorded highly significant for depth of showing indicating that irrespective of varieties higher the planting depth lower the emergence count.. There was a positive relation between depth of planting and length of mesocotyle resulting loss of seed vigor which furnished low emergence of the maize varieties. It is suggested that depth of sowing affect emergence percentage which consequently have effects on plant population maintenance. Hence, it was concluded that sowing below 7cm deep is not feasible for the tested varieties under red clay and sandy loam soils. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7539 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 1: 2010 pp.23-27
Effect of climate change on food production and its implication in Nepal
MN Paudel
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7541
Abstract: Climate change is a complex phenomenon. Now climate change has become a buzz word in general and particular to agriculture and food security. It is true for developing countries where there is a dearth of information to support and reject such a complex phenomena of this universally important aspect of nature. Climate change is as unpredictable as the movement of a bird in the sky that even an ornithologist cannot predict the movement of a falcon that is swinging in the air and so is the case of climate change even for meteorologists working in the World Meteorological Station. The main concern about climate change and food security is that changing climatic conditions can initiate a vicious circle where infectious diseases cause or compound hunger, which, in turn, make the affected populations more susceptible to infectious disease. The result can be a substantial decline in labor productivity and an increase in poverty and even mortality. Essentially all manifestations of climate change, such as drought, higher temperatures, or heavy rainfalls could have an impact on the disease pressure on plants and animals. Also, climate change could affect food safety and food security. It is anticipated that due to climate change many flora and fauna including humans, higher plants and animals will face new diseases due to easily expansion of diseases causing epidemic cycle making more favorable to pathogens in different parts of the world. There will be a continuous outbreak of such diseases making hunger and malnutrition more severe than ever and consequently affect for important food commodities due to changing climate of tropical, temperate and equatorial zones, the main biodiversity zones for population and food production as well. Hence, this paper tries to provide a brief review on climate change with respect to food security and crop production, which, ultimately, could suggest agronomic measures to mitigate the impacts of climate change and adopt vagaries of climate change in the days ahead for an agrarian country like Nepal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7541 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 1: 2010 pp.40-49
Ethics of agriculturalists
MN Paudel
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7516
Abstract: Agronomy is the mother of agriculture and it is also synonymous to agricultur as well. Therefore, agronomy in general term in this article not only limits to the core discipline of agronomy and agronomists but also it entails the whole sphere of agriculture and agriculturists as well. Nonetheless, readers are humbly urged to take ethics of agronomists as the ethics of agriculturists for this is the agronomy journal’s article which is meant for agronomists in general perspectives. It has been mentioned in this paper that what are the ethical boundaries of agriculturists in professional capacity. The paper also describes what the ethical issues with respect to agronomist as a researcher and extensionist are entailing while executing their duty. Pressures have been brought to bear upon farming and those who serve it in any capacity to widen the list of tasks to which agriculture should be devoted. At one time, the role of agriculture was to produce food, but now many people expect agriculture to be carried out in an environmentally friendly way that maintains the rural economy. We now speak of multifunctional agriculture. One tool sometimes used to press those demands is an appeal to ethics. This appeal can appear to suggest that agriculturalists have been ethically negligent. Every agricultural ethicist knows by experience how poorly received that suggestion is. Agriculture is a vocation or profession that prides itself on the unquestionable value, even nobility, of its work. Whereas agronomists should be engaged for number of works in day to day life involving social justification in farming, soil fertility and sustainability, soil conservation, rural living condition, farming and environment, healthy and nontoxic food production to the masses in an affordable manner, and so on and so forth. Above all, there is a big morale of agriculturist to save Mother Nature for our future generation tailored with multinational companies, engaged in agriculture, which have big say in generating and disseminating agro-technologies which are mooted to profit making and patenting agro biodiversity. This paper sheds lights in all such issues and aware agriculturists if it is being done ethically on the part of agriculturists/agronomists. Also the paper cites what are the ethical concerns of agriculturists to make their profession ethically sound that include honesty, integrity, fairness, and service to the clienteles in question. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7516 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 2: 2011 pp.1-11
Rice (Oryza sativa L) cultivation in the highest elevation of the world
MN Paudel
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7519
Abstract: Jumla is one of the 75 districts in the midwestern hills of Nepal. Rice ( Oryza sativa L) cultivation in Jumla ranges from 2,400 to 3,050 m altitude, which is the highest elevation in the world. The highest elevation at 3,050 m is Chhumjul of Jumla, a record altitude, where rice is cultivated in Nepal. Jumli Marshi, a Japonica variety of indigenous rice, having cold tolerant gene, is probably cultivated since 1,300 years ago in Jumla in the bank of the Tila river. Improved rice varieties were tested in the Jumla valley by the Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC). In 2002, two improved rice varieties Chandannath-1 and Chandannath-3 were released for temperate region of Jumla and Karnali zone. Productivity of rice in Jumla is 1.7 mt/ha almost 40% lower than that of national average of 2.97 t/ha. Low productivity of rice is mainly due to the constraints of many biotic, abiotic and socio-economic factors. Food security in the food deficit region of the Karnali zone could be sustained by increasing rice productivity in the Jumla region where perennial irrigation is available round the year. Whole of the Jumla region is unique place with respect to rice cultivation in the highest altitude of the world. The practice of rice cultivation in Jumla could be a remarkable activity for boosting agro-tourism in the agrarian country like Nepal. Rice cultivation in Jumla is quite unique from the rice cultivation even in the same range of temperate region. Such a typical organic rice production system in the highest elevation of the world needs immediate attention of all institutions and authorities concerned to conserve it for the future generation as well. Jumla, the temperate region, is also affected by the impact of global warming thereby receding water level in the Tila river and its tributaries flowing in the Jumla valleys during rice growing season (March - October). Attempts have been made to document ethno-culture, socio-economic and cultural practices of rice cultivation in the highest elevation in the world. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v2i0.7519 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 2: 2011 pp.31-41
On-farm comparison of improved maize variety Manakamana-3 with Local Thulo Seto for grain yield and agronomic attributes at Dukuchhap, Lalitpur, Nepal
MN Paudel, R Khadka
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7537
Abstract: On-farm studies were carried out at Dukuchhap, (1100-1500 m), Lalitpur, an Outreach Research Site of Khumaltar complex during 2006-2007 full season maize growing (May-Sep). The study consisted of comparison among grain yield, and agronomic attributes between Manakamana-3, an improved OPV and Local Thulo Seto maize varieties. Field surveys were conducted to gather information on aforesaid attributes of these maize varieties. In 2006, data were recorded from 265 plants for Local Thulo Seto and 131 plants from different fields for Manakamana-3 while in 2007 they were recorded from 180 plants for both varieties. The result of the study revealed that both of these varieties were comparable for grain yield and ear length. However, combined analysis over years for plant and ear height, ear fill, and ear circumference showed a highly significant result. It was also recorded that plant height, ear height and ear filled remained dynamic between these varieties over years. Plant height of Local Thulo Seto was exceptionally tall up to 364 cm compared to Manakamana-3 which attained a plant height up to 241 cm. The most important yield parameter of grain weight/ear was not affected due to years and varieties. Bivariate relationship among grain yield and agronomic attributes showed that grain weight/ear was highly correlated with ear length (r=0.73**), ear fill (r=0.75**), and ear circumference (r=0.63**). Ear height was not correlated with grain yield. It was also observed that plant height has a negative relationship with grain yield and ear attributes except for ear height which was positively correlated with plant height. Maize variety Thulo Seto is popular in Dukuchhap where area coverage of this variety is more than 80% in the locality. There is a serious limitation of this variety at Dukuchhap because of stalk lodging which was severe in 2006 as a result around 80% plants have the problem of stalk lodging. Farmers preferred this variety because it is resistant to early drought which is another problem for maize growing at Dukuchhap. Therefore, if we improve population of Thulo Seto in farmers’ field and reduce plant height of this variety by way of population improvement there is no need of introducing new varieties of maize in immediate future at Dukuchhap and similar domain in Lalitpur. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7537 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 1: 2010 pp.10-15
Inclusion of grain legumes in rice based systems in the mid-hills of central Nepal
R Khadka, MN Paudel
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7543
Abstract: Grain legumes are the important crops for improving soil condition and dietary status of humans. These crops could improve both soil and human health if grown in the prevailing farming systems. Keeping these view in mind, participatory varietals selection (PVS) on lentil ( Lens esculents L.), mung bean ( Vigna radiata ) and cowpea ( Vigna ungiculuta ) was conducted in the central mid hills (Ramechha and Sindhuli districts) of Nepal. Five varieties of lentil (ILL 7982, ILL 6829, ILL 7537, ILL 7723 and Simal), four of mung bean (VC 3960, Kalyan, Pratiksha and Farmers' Local) and cowpea (Surya, Prakash, IT 86-2089-5F and America) were tested at different locations of those districts under rice-wheat-fallow and rice-fallow-maize systems during 2007 to 2009. All of those varieties were tested in farmers’ field condition keeping farmers as a replication in RCB design with ten replications for each crop. Agronomic practices were performed by farmers as and when necessary. Among the tested varieties of lentil, ILL 7982 produced the highest grain yield of 1347 kg/ha whereas Sital produced the lowest grain yield of 1003kg/ha. Similarly for mung bean, the variety VC 3960 gave the highest grain yield of 1145kg/ha and Pratiksha produced the lowest grain yield of 975 kg/ha. Likewise, among the tested varieties of cowpea, America gave the highest pod yield of 5320 kg/ha and Prakash gave the lowest pod yield of 3400 kg/ha. These varieties were identified suitable for further promotion in different cropping patterns such as rice-lentil- maize, rice-maize/mung bean, ricemaize/ cowpea systems. Simple economic analysis of the cropping systems under question indicated that inclusion of legumes in the systems seemed highly lucrative compared to maize and wheat. Therefore, it is anticipated that integration of legumes in the systems could enrich soil as well as it would be beneficial to farmers because of nutritional status attractive price in the market of these crops. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajn.v1i0.7543 Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN) Vol. 1: 2010 pp.61-66
Critical Analysis of Press Freedom in Nepal after the Peace Agreement 2006  [PDF]
Binod Kumar Paudel
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2017.54013
Abstract: A decade long civil war ended with a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2006. To address the political developments, the Interim Constitution was promulgated in 2007. Though the Interim Constitution of Nepal 2007 guarantees press freedom, every year various incidents of press freedom violation are recorded by various national and international organizations. This article evaluates the situation of press freedom in Nepal since the signing of CPA 2006 by analyzing all the incidents of press freedom violation from 2007 to 2014 as recorded by International Federation of Journalists (IFJ). The analysis of those events shows lack of sufficient evidence and information to justify them as the press freedom violation. No matter where and how the journalist or media owner is killed, threatened or harmed physically, it is termed as press freedom violation. The situation of Press freedom after peace agreement in 2006 is not that critical as projected in various reports and there is no government censorship in media. However, if the mechanism by which press freedom violation cases are recorded could be reviewed and more details are included, those reports will be much reliable. This tendency of reflecting critical situation of press freedom by projecting every incident without an adequate investigation might deviate from other issues related to journalist’s profession and further it might not motivate journalist and media to adhere to the code of ethics and become responsible to their profession. Though, the issue of professional safety of journalists could not be ignored, not all the incidents related to journalist are the cases of press freedom violation.
Study on Empathy among Undergraduate Students of the Medical Profession in Nepal  [PDF]
Krishna Bahadur GC, Sudarshan Paudel
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2017.511007
Abstract: Background: The incumbent of medical professional is expected to be socially responsible and emotionally empathetic along with good communication propensity to fasten the doctor-patient relationship. Whilst doctor’s proficiency to recognize a patient’s perspectives, and convey such an understanding back to the patient; in our case, the empathy and compassion level of promising medical professional is unknown in Nepal. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the compassion and empathy score of final year’s undergraduate students of four medical colleges in Nepal. Methods: Self-reported empathy measures were obtained using the Jefferson Scale of Physician-Student version. Results: The degree of empathy for the participants was 97.28 (SD = 14.44) with a median score of 96.00 and a range of 44 (min) to 133 (max). There was a significant difference on scores of the Jefferson scale of physician empathy between NMC Nepalgunj and BPKIHS (p = 0.00) and between NMC Nepalgunj and Manipal Pokhara (p = 0.00), as well as between UCMS and Manipal Pokhara (p = 0.044). These results were significant at the 95% confidence interval. Conclusions: The mean empathy score for the Nepali students is lower than medical students from developed countries but almost similar to medical students from other Asian medical students. The female Nepali medical students scored slightly higher than their male counterparts. Thus colleges have to develop academic programs to improve empathy and compassion among medical students through providing adequate time to consult with patient and faculties.
Environmental Determinants of Disease Prevalence in Rural Western Nepal  [PDF]
Uttam Paudel, Krishna Prasad Pant
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.912077
Abstract: Environmental determinants causing unexpected disease rampant are seemed major challenges to be protective from inevitable hazards and to deal the future consequences in terms of human health loss. This paper explores the major environmental determinants stimulating disease prevalence in western hilly areas of Nepal. Cross-sectional analytical research design for household level primary data was treated with the binary logit regression model to identify the determinants of disease prevalence. Extreme winter temperature, decreasing winter rainfall, sporadic rain, drying spout and decreasing the tree species are the major environmental determinants; hand washing, proper management of solid waste from kitchen and habit of drinking boiled water are as household behavioral determinants; and adequate family members, higher education, use of pesticide to control the insects and use of clean cooking fuels are socioeconomic determinants encouraging disease prevalence. Plantation of large perennial and medicinal plants, proper management of warm clothes or heaters especially for old people and children having respiratory problems for extreme winter; management of water tank for long drought in winter and community awareness campaign for the protection of spout are urgent needs for the prevention of current disease prevalence. Ergo, the recommendations are made accordingly.
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