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Evaluación del Riego Ambiental del Insecticida Metamidofos en Bioensayos con Cuatro Organismos Acuáticos no Destinatarios
Iannacone O,José; Onofre C,Roxana; Huanqui S,Olga; Giraldo A,Jorge; Mamani P,Nancy; Miglio T,Maria C; Alvario F,Lorena;
Agricultura Técnica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072007000200002
Abstract: the aim of this research was to evaluate the ecotoxicological effect of methamidophos using two formulations of different toxicological class [monofos?, class ia (extremely dangerous) and tamaron?, class ib (highly dangerous)] on four non-target aquatic organisms: bloodworm chironomus calligraphus (goeldi, 1905) (diptera: chironomidae), black sea urchin tetrapygus niger molina, 1782 (echinodermata: arbaciidae), neon tetra paracheirodon innesi (rabout, 1940) (osteichthyes: characidae); and rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum, 1792) (osteichthyes: salmonidae). both methamidophos formulations evidenced a high risk effect on the aquatic environment, finding effects on larvae of c. calligraphus (class ia, lc50 at 48 h = 1.32 mg a.i. l-1 and class ib, lc50 at 48 h = 4.5 mg a.i. l-1), on fertilization of t. niger (class ia, ic50 at 1 h = 1423 mg a.i. l-1 and class ib, ic50 at 1 h = 608 mg a.i. l-1), on p. innesi (class ia, lc50 at 96 h = 20.56 mg a.i. l-1 and class ib, lc50 at 96 h = 10.13 mg a.i. l-1) and o. mykiss (class ib, lc50 at 96 h = 19.12 mg a.i. l-1). the sequence of sensibility to methamidophos in both formulations was: c. calligraphus > o. mykiss ≈ p. innesi > t. niger. in addition, two sublethal effects were evaluated on p. innesi, immobilization and strange swimming, and finally an increment of opercular movement in o. mykiss. risk quotients (rq) indicated in all cases a high risk of methamidophos towards the aquatic environments.
EVALUACIóN DEL RIESGO AMBIENTAL DEL INSECTICIDA CARTAP EN BIOENSAYOS CON TRES INVERTEBRADOS
Iannacone O.,José; Alvario F.,Lorena;
Agricultura Técnica , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072002000300003
Abstract: the ecotoxicological impact of the insecticide cartap, extracted from the marine polychaete lumbrinereis spp., was evaluated on three representative organisms of the animal community. the microcrustaceans moina macrocopa (sars) (freshwater environment) and porcellio laevis latreille (terrestrial environment), and also the parasitoid microhymenopterans muscidifurax raptorrellus kogan & legner (aerial environment) were used as side effect organisms on different models of acute bioassays at 24 and 48 h of exposure to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. the ld50 (mean lethal dose) of p. laevis and the lc50 (mean lethal concentration) of m. macrocopa and m. raptorrellus, allowed the calculation of the risk quotients (rqs) for the environmental risk assessment (era) of this product in the ecosystem. the analysis of era and lt50 (mean lethal time) indicated a moderate impact for cartap on the environment.
Efecto Ecotoxicológico de tres Metales Pesados Sobre el Crecimiento Radicular de Cuatro Plantas Vasculares
Iannacone O.,José; Alvario F.,Lorena;
Agricultura Técnica , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072005000200009
Abstract: environmental risk assessment (era) of terrestrial environments polluted by heavy metals in peru requires standardized biological organisms, the use of which is simple, practical, sensitive and repeatable, such as seeds of higher plants used in eco-toxicological bioassays. the aim of this research was to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of cr6+, hg2+ and pb2+ as potassium dichromate (k2cr207), mercury chloride (cl2hg) and lead acetate ((ch3c00)2pb), respectively, on growing roots of four species of higher terrestrial plants: onions (allium cepa l., liliaceae), red beets (beta vulgaris l., chenopodiaceae), rice (oriza sativa l., poaceae) and radishes (raphanus sativus l., brassicaceae) at 192 h (8 days) exposure. bioassays of static sub-lethal toxicity for each metal and for each species of plant were performed, using a randomized complete block design: six concentrations and eight replicates with 240 seeds for each bioassay. the sequence in ascending order for mean inhibition concentration (ic50 in mg l-1) on root growth at 192 h exposure in the majority of cases was: hg2+ > cr6+> pb2+. the perspectives of use for evaluation of soils contaminated by heavy metals in peru are analyzed.
Ecotoxicological Effects of Three Heavy Metals on the Root Growth of Four Vascular Plants Efecto Ecotoxicológico de tres Metales Pesados Sobre el Crecimiento Radicular de Cuatro Plantas Vasculares
José Iannacone O.,Lorena Alvario F.
Agricultura Técnica , 2005,
Abstract: Environmental risk assessment (ERA) of terrestrial environments polluted by heavy metals in Peru requires standardized biological organisms, the use of which is simple, practical, sensitive and repeatable, such as seeds of higher plants used in eco-toxicological bioassays. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of Cr6+, Hg2+ and Pb2+ as potassium dichromate (K2Cr(2)0(7)), mercury chloride (Cl2Hg) and lead acetate ((CH3C00)2Pb), respectively, on growing roots of four species of higher terrestrial plants: onions (Allium cepa L., Liliaceae), red beets (Beta vulgaris L., Chenopodiaceae), rice (Oriza sativa L., Poaceae) and radishes (Raphanus sativus L., Brassicaceae) at 192 h (8 days) exposure. Bioassays of static sub-lethal toxicity for each metal and for each species of plant were performed, using a randomized complete block design: six concentrations and eight replicates with 240 seeds for each bioassay. The sequence in ascending order for mean inhibition concentration (IC50 in mg L-1) on root growth at 192 h exposure in the majority of cases was: Hg2+ > Cr6+> Pb2+. The perspectives of use for evaluation of soils contaminated by heavy metals in Peru are analyzed. La evaluación del riesgo ambiental (ERA) de los ambientes terrestres contaminados por metales pesados en el Perú requiere del empleo de organismos biológicos estandarizados, que sean sencillos, prácticos, sensibles y repetibles, como las semillas de plantas superiores empleadas en bioensayos ecotoxicológicos. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto fitotóxico del Cr6+, Hg2+ y Pb2+ en forma de dicromato de potasio (K2Cr(2)0(7)), cloruro de mercurio (Cl2Hg) y acetato de plomo ((CH3C00)2Pb), respectivamente, sobre el crecimiento radicular de cuatro especies de plantas superiores terrestres: cebolla (Allium cepa L., Liliaceae), betarraga (Beta vulgaris L., Chenopodiaceae), arroz (Oriza sativa L., Poaceae) y rabanito (Raphanus sativus L., Brassicaceae) a 192 h (8 días) de exposición. Se realizaron bioensayos de toxicidad subagudos estáticos para cada metal y para cada especie de planta, usando un dise o experimental en bloques completos al azar: seis concentraciones, ocho repeticiones, con un total de 240 semillas por bioensayo. La secuencia en orden ascendente para la concentración de inhibición media (CI50 en mg L-1) del crecimiento radicular de las semillas a 192 h fue en la mayoría de los casos: Hg2+ > Cr6+ > Pb2+. Se analizan las perspectivas de uso para la evaluación de suelos contaminados por metales pesados en el Perú.
EVALUACIóN DEL RIESGO AMBIENTAL DEL INSECTICIDA CARTAP EN BIOENSAYOS CON TRES INVERTEBRADOS Environmental risk assessment of the insecticide Cartap in bioassays with three invertebrates
José Iannacone O.,Lorena Alvario F.
Agricultura Técnica , 2002,
Abstract: Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida animal cartap, extraído del poliqueto marino Lumbrineris spp., sobre tres organismos representativos de la comunidad animal. Los microcrustáceos Moina macrocopa (Sars) (ambiente dulceacuícola) y Porcellio laevis Latreille (ambiente terrestre), así como la microavispa parasitoide Muscidifurax raptorrellus Kogan y Legner (ambiente aéreo) fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en diferentes modelos de bioensayos agudos estáticos a 24 y 48 h de exposición, para determinar el impacto toxicológico de cartap. Los valores de DL50 (dosis letal media) para P. laevis y de CL50 (concentración letal media) para M. macrocopa y M. raptorrellus, permitieron calcular los cuocientes de riesgo (RQ) para la evaluación de riesgo ambiental (ERA) de este producto sobre el ecosistema. El análisis ERA y el TL50 (tiempo letal medio) indicaron un impacto moderado de cartap en el ambiente. The ecotoxicological impact of the insecticide cartap, extracted from the marine polychaete Lumbrinereis spp., was evaluated on three representative organisms of the animal community. The microcrustaceans Moina macrocopa (Sars) (freshwater environment) and Porcellio laevis Latreille (terrestrial environment), and also the parasitoid microhymenopterans Muscidifurax raptorrellus Kogan & Legner (aerial environment) were used as side effect organisms on different models of acute bioassays at 24 and 48 h of exposure to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. The LD50 (mean lethal dose) of P. laevis and the LC50 (mean lethal concentration) of M. macrocopa and M. raptorrellus, allowed the calculation of the risk quotients (RQs) for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of this product in the ecosystem. The analysis of ERA and LT50 (mean lethal time) indicated a moderate impact for cartap on the environment.
CRIANZA ARTIFICIAL DEL CARACOL DE AGUA DULCE Physa venustula Gould PARA ESTUDIOS ECOTOXICOLóGICOS DE PLAGUICIDAS
Iannacone O.,José; Caballero R.,Cecilia; Alvario F.,Lorena;
Agricultura Técnica , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072002000200014
Abstract: standard artificial breeding of the freshwater snail physa venustula for ecotoxicological evaluation of pesticides was realized. the bioassays were standardized with a breeding protocol of four batches of p. venustula fed with a solution of cereal leaves? plus fishmeal and chlorella vulgaris in our laboratory. the oviposition had a downward trend through the time. the eggs were hatched between 7 and 14 d under experimental conditions. the average of eggs per capsule was 12.04 ± 10.66 (range= 1 to 45) and the average fecundity percentage was 65.22%. the snails which produced more egg mass had a lower average number of eggs. the cereal leaves? proved to be a more complete diet for the freshwater snail p. venustula compared to the microalgae chlorella vulgaris. the morphologic characteristics of the eggs and the behavior of the immature forms are described. the rotifer philodina acutiformis was a biological contaminant that did not permit the normal growth of the eggs in the cultures. the protocol of ecotoxicological assay using p. venustula has the following advantages: wide distribution in the neotropic, reliability, repeatability, high sensitivity in comparison with other snails and short duration of the assay.
Uso de macroinvertebrados bentonicos como bioindicadores de la calidad de agua en el rio Rimac, Lima-Callao, Peru Use of benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of water quality in Rimac River, Lima-Callao, Peru
CHRISTIAN PAREDES E,JOSE IANNACONE O,LORENA ALVARIO F
Revista Colombiana de Entomología , 2005,
Abstract: Las comunidades de macroinvertebrados bentonicos (MIB) pueden emplearse como eficientes indicadores biologicos de la calidad de agua en los ecosistemas dulceacuicolas. Durante el periodo Octubre del 2002 a Setiembre del 2003. se desarrollaron evaluaciones de MIB en el rio Rimac, aguas abajo de la Atarjea, Lima - Callao, Peru. El objetivo fue analizar su composiciòn faunistica, riqueza de familias y calidad del agua con base en el indice Biological Monitoring Working Party modificado (BMWP' modif.). La evaluacion se realizo en seis estaciones de muestreo ubicadas a lo largo del curso del rio Rimac, que cruza Lima y Callao. Se registraron 35 taxa de MIB: Hexapoda (27). Annelida (2). Mollusca (2). Arachnida (2). Plathyhelmintes (1) y Chilopoda (1). De los 2.166 especimenes coleccionados. Oligochaeta (n = 597) obtuvo la mayor abundancia absoluta, seguido por Psychodidae (n = 521). Physidac (n = 442). Chironomidae (n = 300) y Dixidae (n = 168). El indice BMWP' modif. valoro el agua del rio Rimac, aguas abajo de la Atarjea como de calidad critica o de aguas muy contaminadas (29 puntos). De los analisis fisicoquimicos evaluados, la Demanda Bioquimica de Oxigeno. indico efectos de perturbacion en el ecosistema acuatico. Finalmente se analizo la potencialidad del empleo de los MIB para evaluar la calidad de agua de los rios en el Peru. The communities of benthic macroinvenebrates (BM1) can be used as efficient biological indicators of the water quality in fresh aquatic ecosystems. Between October 2002 and September 2003. evaluations of MIB were developed in the Rimac River downstream from Atarjea. Lima- Callao. Peru. The objective was to analyze their faunistic composition, richness of families and water quality, based on the modified Biological Monitoring Working Parly index (BMWP' modified). The evaluation was conducted in six sampling stations located along the course of the Rimac river that crosses Lima and Callao. Thirty-five taxa of BMI were reported: Hexapoda (27). Annelida (2). Mollusca (2). Arachnidae (2). Plathyhelmintcs (1) and Chilopoda (I). From 2.166 specimens collected. Oligochaeta (n = 597) had ihe higher absolule abundance, followed by Psychodidae (n = 521), Physidac (n =442). Chironomidae (n = 300). and Dixidae (n = 168). The modified BMWP' index scored the water of Rimac River downstream from Alarjea as critical qualify or very polluted waters (29 points). Of all the physicochemical analyses evaluaicd. Biochemical Oxygen Demand indicated perturbance effects in this freshwater ecosystem. Finally, the potential of the BMI to evaluate the water q
CRIANZA ARTIFICIAL DEL CARACOL DE AGUA DULCE Physa venustula Gould PARA ESTUDIOS ECOTOXICOLóGICOS DE PLAGUICIDAS Artificial rearing of the freshwater snail Physa venustula Gould for ecotoxicological studies of pesticides
José Iannacone O.,Cecilia Caballero R.,Lorena Alvario F.
Agricultura Técnica , 2002,
Abstract: Se realizó una crianza artificial estandarizada del caracol de agua dulce Physa venustula Gould para estudios ecotoxicológicos de plaguicidas. Los bioensayos se estandarizaron con el protocolo de crianza con cuatro camadas de P. venustula, alimentadas con una solución de Cereal Leaves y hojuelas de pescado y Chlorella vulgaris en nuestro laboratorio. La oviposición siguió un patrón descendente a través del tiempo. La eclosión de los huevos fue de 7 a 14 d bajo condiciones experimentales. El promedio de huevos por cápsula fue de 12,04 ± 10,66 (rango = 1 a 45) y el porcentaje promedio de fecundidad fue de 65,22%. En los caracoles que produjeron más masas, éstas contuvieron menor número promedio de huevos. El alimento Cereal Leaves demostró ser una dieta más completa para el caracol dulceacuícola P. venustula comparado con la microalga Chlorella vulgaris. Se describen las características morfológicas de los huevos y el comportamiento de las formas juveniles. El rotífero Philodina acutiformis se comportó como un agente biológico contaminante que no permitió el desarrollo normal de los huevos en los cultivos. El protocolo de ensayo ecotoxicológico empleando P. venustula presenta las siguientes ventajas: amplia distribución en el neotrópico, confiabilidad, repetibilidad, alta sensibilidad en comparación a otros caracoles y corta duración del ensayo. Standard artificial breeding of the freshwater snail Physa venustula for ecotoxicological evaluation of pesticides was realized. The bioassays were standardized with a breeding protocol of four batches of P. venustula fed with a solution of Cereal Leaves plus fishmeal and Chlorella vulgaris in our laboratory. The oviposition had a downward trend through the time. The eggs were hatched between 7 and 14 d under experimental conditions. The average of eggs per capsule was 12.04 ± 10.66 (range= 1 to 45) and the average fecundity percentage was 65.22%. The snails which produced more egg mass had a lower average number of eggs. The Cereal Leaves proved to be a more complete diet for the freshwater snail P. venustula compared to the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. The morphologic characteristics of the eggs and the behavior of the immature forms are described. The rotifer Philodina acutiformis was a biological contaminant that did not permit the normal growth of the eggs in the cultures. The protocol of ecotoxicological assay using P. venustula has the following advantages: wide distribution in the neotropic, reliability, repeatability, high sensitivity in comparison with other snails and short duration of the assay.
Biogeography of planktonic microbial communities across the whole Mediterranean Sea
F. Mapelli,M. M. Varela,M. Barbato,R. Alvario
Ocean Science Discussions (OSD) , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/osd-10-291-2013
Abstract: The M84/3 cruise recently held onboard of R/V Meteor represented a great and rare opportunity for the scientific community to realize a multidisciplinary survey on the whole Mediterranean Sea. In this context, molecular microbiology investigation, realized by applying Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Sequence Analysis (ARISA) and microscope evaluation of prokaryotic abundance, were performed on seawater samples aiming to identify the environmental factors driving planktonic bacterial community composition across both vertical and longitudinal transects. Prokaryotic abundance decreased along with depth in all the stations and presented similar values in sub-surface, meso- and bathypelagic layers across the whole Mediterranean basin. On the contrary, peculiar bacterial assemblages were selected along a longitudinal transect in the surface layers of the eastern and western sub-basins. Sharp vertical profiling of the bacterial communities was observed only considering the boundary of the water column, while the study of bacterial β-diversity at finer scale across the water column displayed higher variability at the intermediate layers. Nonetheless, different physico-chemical factors were significantly related to microbial zonation both according to geographic position and across the water column in the whole Mediterranean Sea. These results demonstrated that bacterial diversity is putatively correlated to different water masses across the water column of the complex hydrographical systems of the eastern and western Mediterranean sub-basins.
Role of Selective Cyclo-Oxygenase-2 Inhibitor Celecoxib in Canine Osteosarcoma Cell Culture  [PDF]
Paulo R. O. Bersano, Maria T. S. Alves, Maria F. M. R. Gartner, Adriana Camargo Ferrasi, Jo?o F. Lima-Neto, Fernanda C. Landim, Stephane C. Vexenat, Carlos Eduardo Fonseca Alves, Glenda Nicioli da Silva, Noeme S. Rocha
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2013.34027
Abstract:

Background: Experimental studies have shown that cyclo-oxygenase-2 (Cox2) is related to the development and progression of tumors, since this enzyme is induced and expressed by cells such as macrophages, osteoblasts, activated endothelial cells, and tumor cells. The activity in tumors includes proliferation, cell transformation, tumor growth, invasion and metastasis and may play an important role in carcinogenesis of the canine osteosarcoma, since it has high expression in tissue fragments. The combination of selective Cox2 inhibitors and other treatment modalities is the basis for a new anti-cancer therapy strategy. This in vitro study exposed primary cells of five different canine osteosarcoma cultures to selective Cox2 inhibitor at increasing concentrations and times. Results: For Cox2 negative cultures, despite the absence of differences, greater sensitivity of cells to treatment was observed. For Cox2 positive cultures, a higher number of necrotic cells were observed (P ≤ 0.05), when compared with negative cultures. For exposure times with Celecoxib doses, no difference (P > 0.05) was found between the three times analyzed for living, apoptotic and apoptotic/necrotic cells. There are similarities in the values of 24 h and 48 h, with slight reduction of living cells, increasing those undergoing apoptosis and apoptosis/necrosis. There was significance for necrosis (P ≤ 0.05). In 72 hours, a significant difference was observed between the other two previous values (P ≤ 0.05). It was found for the group of 100 μML-1, that there was a numerically greater signaling for apoptosis and lower (P = 0.08) for necrosis, and this point was the onset of the pharmacodynamic phenomenon, with drop in the values for living cells and increased number of necrotic cells, with a tendency (P = 0.08) for reducing the percentage of necrotic cells for the group of 100 μML-1 when compared to that of

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