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Evaluating Alternative Methods of Soil Erodibility Mapping in the Mediterranean Island of Crete
Christos G. Karydas,Marinos Petriolis,Ioannis Manakos
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3030362
Abstract: Soil erodibility is among the trickiest erosion factors to estimate. This is especially true for heterogeneous Mediterranean environments, where reliable and dense soil data are rarely available, and interpolation methods give very low accuracies. Towards estimating soil erodibility, research so far has resulted in several alternatives mainly based on empirical formulas, on physics-based equations or on inference with expertise. The aim of this work was to compare erodibility patterns derived by using the empirical United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) formula and by inference from a geological map in a Mediterranean agricultural site. The Kolymvari area, located in the western part of Crete, an area covered by olive groves and citrus orchards, was selected as the study site for this work. Comparison of the spatial patterns of soil erodibility derived from the two alternatives showed significant differences ( i.e., a mean normalized difference value of 0.52), while a test of the “inference” alternative indicated very low accuracies (0.1475 RMS error). A comparison, however, of the spatial patterns of erosion values derived from both alternatives indicated that dissimilarities of the two soil erodibility maps faded out. Moreover, the highly risky areas provided by both alternatives were found to be identical for 88% of the whole study site.
Sustainable Development and Spatial Planning: Some considerations arising from the Greek case
Pavlos Marinos Delladetsima
European Journal of Spatial Development , 2012,
Abstract: The paper aims to elaborate on the notion of sustainable development in relation to spatial planning and to question its applicability based on the experience arising from the distinct socio-economic situation in Greece. Experience accumulated in the country with the adoption of sustainable development as a spatial policy concept proves to be in contradiction with perceptions that consider it as a basis for improving the plan making process and the planning system as whole. In this respect, it is argued that sustainable development is not a feasible proposition for planning in Greece and offers little to alleviate urban development and sprawl problems. Further, the paper highlights how a globalised approach to sustainable development and planning in Greece has made a negligible contribution to reinvigorating a weak and disjointed system, while also creating significant adverse effects in spatial policymaking.
Digital Ecosystems in the Clouds: Towards Community Cloud Computing
Gerard Briscoe,Alexandros Marinos
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: Cloud Computing is rising fast, with its data centres growing at an unprecedented rate. However, this has come with concerns of privacy, efficiency at the expense of resilience, and environmental sustainability, because of the dependence on Cloud vendors such as Google, Amazon, and Microsoft. Community Cloud Computing makes use of the principles of Digital Ecosystems to provide a paradigm for Clouds in the community, offering an alternative architecture for the use cases of Cloud Computing. It is more technically challenging to deal with issues of distributed computing, such as latency, differential resource management, and additional security requirements. However, these are not insurmountable challenges, and with the need to retain control over our digital lives and the potential environmental consequences, it is a challenge we must pursue.
Community Cloud Computing
Alexandros Marinos,Gerard Briscoe
Computer Science , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-10665-1_43
Abstract: Cloud Computing is rising fast, with its data centres growing at an unprecedented rate. However, this has come with concerns over privacy, efficiency at the expense of resilience, and environmental sustainability, because of the dependence on Cloud vendors such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft. Our response is an alternative model for the Cloud conceptualisation, providing a paradigm for Clouds in the community, utilising networked personal computers for liberation from the centralised vendor model. Community Cloud Computing (C3) offers an alternative architecture, created by combing the Cloud with paradigms from Grid Computing, principles from Digital Ecosystems, and sustainability from Green Computing, while remaining true to the original vision of the Internet. It is more technically challenging than Cloud Computing, having to deal with distributed computing issues, including heterogeneous nodes, varying quality of service, and additional security constraints. However, these are not insurmountable challenges, and with the need to retain control over our digital lives and the potential environmental consequences, it is a challenge we must pursue.
Heroin-induced changes of CD34-positive rat thymus cells  [PDF]
Gentimi Fotini, Perrea Despina, Marinos Evangelos, Konstandi Ourania, Katsorchis Theodoros
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.28142
Abstract: Heroin is a well known opioid that causes al-terations to the immune system of a number of investigated animals. Only a few studies have explored the effect of heroin on the lymphocytes maturation. Thymocyte progenitors originate from haematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. The immature T-cells express neither CD4 nor CD8, and are therefore classed as double-negative (CD4-CD8-) cells. CD34 glycoprotein is the only defined marker of the immature T-lymphocytes. In this study we have investigated the changes induced in CD34+ rat thymocytes after heroin administration by immunofluores-cence in frozen rat thymus sections using the 4H11 monoclonal anti-CD34 antibody. There is a remarkable decrease in the number of CD34+ immature thymocytes when examined 1hour after last heroin injection and a small recover when examination took place 20 days after last injection. The above results suggest a major effect of heroin administration early in the ma- turation process of T lymphocytes probably by increasing the apoptotic cell death and the ne- gative consequences for the immune system responses.
Rockfall hazard and risk assessment: an example from a high promontory at the historical site of Monemvasia, Greece
H. Saroglou,V. Marinos,P. Marinos,G. Tsiambaos
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-12-1823-2012
Abstract: The paper presents the kinematics of rock instability of a high limestone promontory, where the Monemvasia historical site is situated, in Peloponnese in Southern Greece. The instability phenomena poses a significant threat to the town located at the base of the slope. Rockfall episodes occurred in the past due to the relaxation of the high cliff, whereas significant undermining of the castle frontiers has been observed at the slope crest. The predominant types of instability are of planar, wedge and toppling failure of medium to large blocks. In order to investigate the existing stability conditions and decide upon the protection measures, stability and rockfall analyses were carried out for numerous slope sections under different loading conditions and protection measures were suggested. A rock-fall risk rating system is proposed, which is based on morphological and structural criteria of the rock mass and on vulnerability and consequences. The rating system is applied for individual sections along the slope and a risk map was produced, which depicted areas having different degree of risk against rockfall occurrences.
Periodic Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells in the Uterus: Preparation for the Implantation of a Semi-Allogeneic Fetus?
Marinos Kallikourdis, Alexander G. Betz
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000382
Abstract: Background Naturally occurring Foxp3+regulatory T cells play an important role in the inhibition of an immunological attack of the fetus. As implantation of the fetus poses an immediate antigenic challenge, the immune system has to prepare itself for this event prior to implantation. Methodology and Principal Findings Here, we show using quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometry that regulatory T cells accumulate in the uterus not only during pregnancy, but also every time the female becomes fertile. Their periodic accumulation is accompanied by matching fluctuations in uterine expression of several chemokines, which have been shown to play a role in the recruitment and retention of regulatory T cells. Conclusions/Significance The data lead us to propose that every time a female approaches estrus, regulatory T cells start to accumulate in the uterus in preparation for a possible implantation event. Once pregnancy is established, those regulatory T cells that have seen alloantigen need to be retained at their site of action. Whilst several chemokines appear to be involved in the recruitment and/or retention of regulatory T cells during estrus, in pregnancy this role appears to be taken over by CCL4.
Magnetic resonance imaging of the ligaments of the craniocervical region at 3Tesla magnetic resonance unit: Quantitative and qualitative assessment  [PDF]
Katerina Vassiou, Kapsalaki Eftichia, Konstantinos Marinos, Filio Kotrogianni, Michail Fanariotis, Ioannis Fezoulidis, Dimitrios Arvanitis
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.512A114
Abstract:

Purpose: The assessment of the morphology and dimensions of the craniocervical ligaments using a 3 Tesla (T) Magnetic Resonance (MR) scanner, the correlatation of our results with those from cadaveric and other MR studies and the detection of the most appropriate sequence for the best imaging of the craniovertebral junction ligaments. Methods: 58 healthy volunteers (mean age 45 years) underwent a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine at 3T MR unit. The MRI protocol included axial, coronal and sagittal Proton-Density (PD) sequences and sagittal T1 Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) and T2 sequences. The images were evaluated by two radiologists and the posterior atlantoocipital ligament, the anterior atlantoocipital ligament, the transverse ligament and the apical ligament were anatomically detected, described and measured. Results: The transverse ligament was identified at 93.1%, the apical ligament was identified at 60.34%, the posterior at- lantooccipital membrane was identified at 94.8% and the anterior atlantooccipital membrane was identified at 96.5% of the cases. All ligaments appeared with low signal intensity, except the anterior atlantooc-cipital ligament which appeared with intermediate signal intensity. Their length, width and thickness were measured and, in general, correlated well with other anatomic and MR studies. Conclusion: Reliable assessment of the morphology and signal intensity of the craniocervical ligaments can be achieved with PD sequence at 3T MR imaging. The sagittal plane provides better delineation of the craniocervical (CC) ligaments but the axial and coronal planes are of paramount importance in the assessment of the transverse and apical ligaments.

Dermoid Cysts of the Floor of the Mouth: Two Case Reports
Christos Makos,George Noussios,Marinos Peios,Spyridon Gougousis,Pantelis Chouridis
Case Reports in Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/362170
Abstract: Dermoid cysts in the floor of the mouth may be congenital or acquired. The congenital form, according to the main theory, originates from embryonic cells of the 1st and 2nd branchial arch. The acquired form may be due to traumatic or iatrogenic causes and as a result of the occlusion of a sebaceous gland duct. Its occurrence is less and is estimated to be from 1.6 to 6.4% of the dermoid cysts of the body in adults and 0.29% of the head and neck tumors occurring in children. They may also be classified as anatomical and histological. Anatomically, they are divided into median genioglossal, median geniohyoid, and lateral cysts, while histologically they are divided into epidermoid, dermoid cysts and teratomas. Clinically, a distinction between supra and inferior type as well as between central and lateral type is proposed in relation to themylohyoidmuscle and themidline, respectively. Histologically, an estimation of dermoid, epidermoid, and teratoid cysts is reported. Enucleation via intraoral and/or extraoral approach is the method of treatment. Two case reports of dermoid cysts in the floor of the mouth are presented in this paper, and an evaluation with regard to pathology, clinical findings, differential diagnosis, and treatment is discussed.
Therapeutic Options for the Management of the Cardiorenal Syndrome
Katerina Koniari,Marinos Nikolaou,Ioannis Paraskevaidis,John Parissis
International Journal of Nephrology , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/194910
Abstract: Patients with heart failure often present with impaired renal function, which is a predictor of poor outcome. The cardiorenal syndrome is the worsening of renal function, which is accelerated by worsening of heart failure or acute decompensated heart failure. Although it is a frequent clinical entity due to the improved survival of heart failure patients, still its pathophysiology is not well understood, and thus its therapeutic approach remains controversial and sometimes ineffective. Established therapeutic strategies, such as diuretics and inotropes, are often associated with resistance and limited clinical success. That leads to an increasing concern about novel options, such as the use of vasopressin antagonists, adenosine A1 receptor antagonists, and renal-protective dopamine. Initial clinical trials have shown quite encouraging results in some heart failure subpopulations but have failed to demonstrate a clear beneficial role of these agents. On the other hand, ultrafiltration appears to be a more promising therapeutic procedure that will improve volume regulation, while preserving renal and cardiac function. Further clinical studies are required in order to determine their net effect on renal function and potential cardiovascular outcomes. Until then, management of the cardiorenal syndrome remains quite empirical.
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