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Identification of Multiple Subtypes of Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken Meat and the Impact on Source Attribution
Megan L. Devane,Brent J. Gilpin,Beth Robson,John D. Klena,Marion G. Savill,John A. Hudson
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3030579
Abstract: Most source attribution studies for Campylobacter use subtyping data based on single isolates from foods and environmental sources in an attempt to draw epidemiological inferences. It has been suggested that subtyping only one Campylobacter isolate per chicken carcass incurs a risk of failing to recognise the presence of clinically relevant, but numerically infrequent, subtypes. To investigate this, between 21 and 25 Campylobacter jejuni isolates from each of ten retail chicken carcasses were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the two restriction enzymes SmaI and KpnI. Among the 227 isolates, thirteen subtypes were identified, the most frequently occurring subtype being isolated from three carcasses. Six carcasses carried a single subtype, three carcasses carried two subtypes each and one carcass carried three subtypes. Some subtypes carried by an individual carcass were shown to be potentially clonally related. Comparison of C. jejuni subtypes from chickens with isolate subtypes from human clinical cases ( n = 1248) revealed seven of the thirteen chicken subtypes were indistinguishable from human cases. None of the numerically minor chicken subtypes were identified in the human data. Therefore, typing only one Campylobacter isolate from individual chicken carcasses may be adequate to inform Campylobacter source attribution.
Assessment: Classic and Innovative Approaches  [PDF]
Marion G. Ben-Jacob
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.51004
Abstract: This paper explores the goals of assessment for today and for the future, addressing different categorizations of assessment. It approaches each category of assessment from the perspective of its objectives. It then proceeds to examine why the popular forms of educational assessment are lacking for the preparation of our students to become independent thinkers and successful lifelong learners. A suggested strategy to ameliorate the situation is presented.
Release of exosomes and microvesicles harbouring specific RNAs and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins from rat and human adipocytes is controlled by histone methylation  [PDF]
Günter Müller, Marion Schneider, Johann Gassenhuber, Susanne Wied
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2012.23020
Abstract: The transfer of proteins and nucleic acids from donor to acceptor cells via small membrane vesicles has been implicated with (patho)physiological consequences. Previously the upregulation of esterification and downregulation of lipolysis in small rat adipocytes upon incubation with exosomes and microvesicles (EMVs) released from large adipocytes and harbouring the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins, Gce1 and CD73, transcripts specific for FSP27 and GPAT3, and microRNAs, miR-16 and miR-222 was demonstrated. Here the release of EMVs from large (but not small) primary and differentiated and human rat adipocytes in response to palmitate, H2O2 and the anti-diabetic sulfonylurea, glimepiride, is shown to be significantly reduced upon inhibition of histone H3 lysine9 methyltransferase G9a by trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (tPCPA) and histone H3 lysine4 demethylase LSD1 by BIX01294. Inhibition of EMV release by tPCPA and BIX01294 was not caused by apoptosis but accompanied by upregulation of the H2O2-induced stimulation of lipid synthesis and downregulation of lipolysis in large (but not small) primary and differentiated rat and human adipocytes. In contrast, the simultaneous presence of tPCPA and BIX-01294 had almost no effect on the induced release of EMVs and lipid metabolism. These findings argue for regulation of the release of EMVs harbouring specific GPI-anchored proteins, transcripts and microRNAs from rat and human adipocytes by histone H3 methylation at lysines 4 and 9 in interdependent fashion. Thus the EMV-mediated transfer of lipogenic and anti-lipolytic information between large and small adipocytes in response to certain physiological and pharmacological stimuli seems to be controlled by epigenetic mechanisms.
Perspectives on Online and On-Site Pedagogy: The Impact of Technology Now and in the Future  [PDF]
Marion G. Ben-Jacob, Tyler E. Ben-Jacob
Art and Design Review (ADR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/adr.2013.12001
Abstract:

Technological advances of this millennium have allowed for enhanced learning experiencesfor students. Technology has and continues to be integrated into the educational environment from many perspectives and to different degrees with the use of different electronic tools. This paper discusses the capabilities and uses of the more popular tools and some of the pedagogical issues that both faculty and students need to be cognizant of when using these educational boons. The effects on life-long learning and global responsibility are discussed. The perspectives of on-site and online learning are addressed with regard to teaching strategies and goals. An understanding of the impact technology will have in the future is discussed as well.

Modelling Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) infection: parameter estimates for mortality rate and infectiousness
Katherine E Atkins, Andrew F Read, Nicholas J Savill, Katrin G Renz, Stephen W Walkden-Brown, Mark EJ Woolhouse
BMC Veterinary Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-7-70
Abstract: Our analyses show that strains of higher virulence have a higher viral shedding rate, and more rapidly kill hosts. Vaccination enhances host life expectancy but does not significantly reduce the shedding rate of the virus. While the primary latent period of the virus does not vary with challenge strain nor vaccine treatment of host, the time until the maximum viral shedding rate is increased with vaccination.Our approach provides the tools necessary for a formal analysis of the evolution of virulence in MDV, and potentially simpler and cheaper approaches to comparing the virulence of MDV strains.Marek's Disease Virus (MDV) is an oncogenic poultry herpesvirus of considerable economic importance to the poultry industry. Virus strains have become increasingly virulent since the 1960s [1,2]. The causes of this viral evolution are unclear [3]. Quantification of patterns of viral shedding and virus-induced host mortality are necessary for a rigorous understanding of the epidemiology of a disease, not least to identify increases in virulence. Here we develop methods to do this.MDV is an airborne pathogen with infection occurring via inhalation [4]. Virus shedding occurs by infected feather follicle epithelium [5]. The resulting dust and dander from dead stratified cells and moulted feathers can then remain in the environment and act as a reservoir for chicken infection. Clinical signs are varied and result in significant morbidity and mortality depending on host genetic susceptibility and virulence of the MDV strain [6]. Symptoms include polyneuritis (an enlargement of multiple peripheral nerves), visceral lymphoma (tumours affecting organs such as the heart, liver, spleen etc.), acute transient paralysis, immunosuppression, brain oedema and acute rash. There has been a change in the types of clinical signs since the disease was first noted [7,8], when chronic polyneuritis was the only sign. Since then, the list of clinical signs described above expanded gradually over the
A systematic review of the safety information contained within the Summaries of Product Characteristics of medications licensed in the United Kingdom for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. how does the safety prescribing advice compare with national guidance?
Savill Nicola,Bushe Chris J
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-6-2
Abstract: Background The safety of paediatric medications is paramount and contraindications provide clear pragmatic advice. Further advice may be accessed through Summaries of Product Characteristics (SPCs) and relevant national guidelines. The SPC can be considered the ultimate independent guideline and is regularly updated. In 2008, the authors undertook a systematic review of the SPC contraindications of medications licensed in the United Kingdom (UK) for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). At that time, there were fewer contraindications reported in the SPC for atomoxetine than methylphenidate and the specific contraindications varied considerably amongst methylphenidate formulations. In 2009, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) mandated harmonisation of methylphenidate SPCs. Between September and November 2011, there were three changes to the atomoxetine SPC that resulted in revised prescribing information. In addition, Clinical Guidance has also been produced by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (2008), the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) (2009) and the British National Formulary for Children (BNFC). Methods An updated systematic review of the Contraindications sections of the SPCs of all medications currently licensed for treatment of ADHD in the UK was undertaken and independent statements regarding contraindications and relevant warnings and precautions were then compared with UK national guidance with the aim of assessing any disparity and potential areas of confusion for prescribers. Results As of November 2011, there were seven medications available in the UK for the treatment of ADHD. There are 15 contraindications for most formulations of methylphenidate, 14 for dexamfetamine and 5 for atomoxetine. Significant differences exist between the SPCs and national guidance part due to the ongoing reactive process of amending the former as new information becomes known. In addition, recommendations are made outside UK SPC licensed indications and a significant contraindication for methylphenidate (suicidal behaviours) is missing from both the NICE and SIGN guidelines. Particular disparity exists relating to monitoring for suicidal and psychiatric side effects. The BNFC has not yet been updated in line with the European Union (EU) Directive on methylphenidate; it does not include any contraindications for atomoxetine but describes contraindications for methylphenidate that are no longer in the SPC. Conclusion Clinicians seeking prescribing advice from critical independe
Electrophysiological Evidence for Impaired Attentional Engagement with Phonologically Acceptable Misspellings in Developmental Dyslexia
Nicola J. Savill,Guillaume Thierry
Frontiers in Psychology , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00139
Abstract: Event-related potential (ERP) studies of word recognition have provided fundamental insights into the time-course and stages of visual and auditory word form processing in reading. Here, we used ERPs to track the time-course of phonological processing in dyslexic adults and matched controls. Participants engaged in semantic judgments of visually presented high-cloze probability sentences ending either with (a) their best completion word, (b) a homophone of the best completion, (c) a pseudohomophone of the best completion, or (d) an unrelated word, to examine the interplay of phonological and orthographic processing in reading and the stage(s) of processing affected in developmental dyslexia. Early ERP peaks (N1, P2, N2) were modulated in amplitude similarly in the two groups of participants. However, dyslexic readers failed to show the P3a modulation seen in control participants for unexpected homophones and pseudohomophones (i.e., sentence completions that are acceptable phonologically but are misspelt). Furthermore, P3a amplitudes significantly correlated with reaction times in each experimental condition. Our results showed no sign of a deficit in accessing phonological representations during reading, since sentence primes yielded phonological priming effects that did not differ between participant groups in the early phases of processing. On the other hand, we report new evidence for a deficient attentional engagement with orthographically unexpected but phonologically expected words in dyslexia, irrespective of task focus on orthography or phonology. In our view, this result is consistent with deficiency in reading occurring from the point at which attention is oriented to phonological analysis, which may underlie broader difficulties in sublexical decoding.
The Influence of Different Sterilization Techniques on the Time-Dependent Behavior of Polyamides  [PDF]
G. Kubyshkina, B. Zupan?i?, M. ?tukelj, D. Gro?elj, L. Marion, I. Emri
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2011.24045
Abstract: For this investigation conventional polyamide 6 with monomodal molecular mass distribution, and the newly developed bimodal one were used. Conventional polyamide 6 was used as a reference material in order to emphasize prospects of using bimodal material for medical applications from the point of view of sterilization resistance and improved creep behavior. Time-dependent mechanical properties of testing samples were characterized by torsional creep measurements in non-sterilized state and after sterilization with three different techniques: with autoclave, ethylene oxide, and hydrogen peroxide plasma. Results show that the two materials exhibit pronounced difference in morphology and consequently, mechanical properties. Both of them were not significantly affected by any of used sterilization techniques. However, bimodal material, originally being noticeably more time-stable in comparison to monomodal one, retains these preferences also post sterilization.
Mast Cells Express 11β-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A Role in Restraining Mast Cell Degranulation
Agnes E. Coutinho, Jeremy K. Brown, Fu Yang, David G. Brownstein, Mohini Gray, Jonathan R. Seckl, John S. Savill, Karen E. Chapman
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054640
Abstract: Mast cells are key initiators of allergic, anaphylactic and inflammatory reactions, producing mediators that affect vascular permeability, angiogenesis and fibrosis. Glucocorticoid pharmacotherapy reduces mast cell number, maturation and activation but effects at physiological levels are unknown. Within cells, glucocorticoid concentration is modulated by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSDs). Here we show expression and activity of 11β-HSD1, but not 11β-HSD2, in mouse mast cells with 11β-HSD activity only in the keto-reductase direction, regenerating active glucocorticoids (cortisol, corticosterone) from inert substrates (cortisone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone). Mast cells from 11β-HSD1-deficient mice show ultrastructural evidence of increased activation, including piecemeal degranulation and have a reduced threshold for IgG immune complex-induced mast cell degranulation. Consistent with reduced intracellular glucocorticoid action in mast cells, levels of carboxypeptidase A3 mRNA, a glucocorticoid-inducible mast cell-specific transcript, are lower in peritoneal cells from 11β-HSD1-deficient than control mice. These findings suggest that 11β-HSD1-generated glucocorticoids may tonically restrain mast cell degranulation, potentially influencing allergic, anaphylactic and inflammatory responses.
Thermophysical property anomalies of Baltic seawater
R. Feistel,G. M. Marion,R. Pawlowicz,D. G. Wright
Ocean Science (OS) & Discussions (OSD) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/os-6-949-2010
Abstract: While the thermodynamic properties of Standard Seawater are very well known, the quantitative effect of sea salt composition anomalies on various properties is difficult to estimate since comprehensive lab experiments with the various natural waters are scarce. Coastal and estuarine waters exhibit significant anomalies which also influence to an unknown amount the routine salinity calculation from conductivity measurements. Recent numerical models of multi-component aqueous electrolytes permit the simulation of physical chemical properties of seawater with variable solute composition. In this paper, the FREZCHEM model is used to derive a Gibbs function for Baltic seawater, and the LSEA_DELS model to provide estimates for the conductivity anomaly relative to Standard Seawater. From additional information such as direct density measurements or empirical salinity anomaly parameterisation, the quantitative deviations of properties between Baltic and Standard Seawater are calculated as functions of salinity and temperature. While several quantities show anomalies that are comparable with their measurement uncertainties and do not demand special improvement, others exhibit more significant deviations from Standard Seawater properties. In particular density and sound speed turn out to be significantly sensitive to the presence of anomalous solute. Suitable general correction methods are suggested to be applied to Baltic Sea samples with known Practical Salinity and, optionally, directly determined density.
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