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Current Limitations in the Control and Spread of Ticks that Affect Livestock: A Review
Agustín Estrada-Pe?a,Mo Salman
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3020221
Abstract: Ticks are well-known parasites that affect livestock productivity. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding the spread of ticks with their impact in animal health and the limitations to achieve effective control measures. The forecasted trends in climate play an obvious role in promoting the spread of ticks in several regions. It appears that climate warming is pivotal in the spread and colonization of new territories by Rhipicephalus microplus in several regions of Africa. The reported increase in altitude of this tick species in the mountainous regions of Central and South America appears to be driven by such general trends in climate change. This factor, however, is not the only single contributor to the spread of ticks. The poor management of farms, uncontrolled movements of domestic animals, abundance of wild animals, and absence of an adequate framework to capture the ecological plasticity of certain ticks may explain the complexity of the control measures. In this paper, we review several details regarding the relationships of ticks with the environment, wild fauna and competition with other species of ticks. Our intention is to highlight these relationships with the aim to produce a coherent framework to explore tick ecology and its relationship with animal production systems.
East Jerusalem Students’ Attitudes towards the Acquisition of Hebrew as a Second or Foreign Language in the Arab Educational System of East Jerusalem and Society’s Support  [PDF]
Salman Ilaiyan
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326151
Abstract: This is a pioneering study examining the eighth grade students’ attitudes in the Arab Education System in East Jerusalem towards learning Hebrew as a foreign/second language: their readiness to communicate in it, and the extent of the community support to learning it. The study is based on Schuman’s (1978) social theories regarding acquiring foreign/second language. The extent of the learner’s social integration in the community of the foreign/second language determines the extent of his success in acquiring the language. The study sample included 643 eighth grade students from East Jerusalem schools who are learning Hebrew as an elective subject. The study questionnaire included three parts: 1) Attitudes towards learning a foreign/second language 2) Readiness to communicate in a foreign/second language 3)The social support. The study findings indicate statistically significant positive correlation between all the measures of the following variables: 1) Attitudes towards a foreign/second language and readiness to communicate in it. 2) Attitudes towards Hebrew as a school subject got a higher positive score than attitudes towards the speakers of the language. 3) Family support (father/mother) got a higher positive score than the friends’ support, and this is following the instrumental issue. The main conclusion of the study is that there is a need to formulate a systemic and unique work plan accompanied with an addition of suitable position and budget to handle the problem of teaching Hebrew as a foreign/second language.
Difficulties Experienced by the Arab Teacher during His First Year of Teaching as a Result of Personal and Organizational Variables  [PDF]
Salman Ilaiyan
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.46053
Abstract:

This pioneer study deals with difficulties faced by the beginning Arab teacher. The theoretical framework of the research is based on Veenman’s (1984) analysis, which indicates 24 difficulties faced by the beginning teacher. These difficulties have been classified into eight categories ranked in order of importance. The study seeks to identify the difficulties experienced by the beginning Arab teacher during his first year of teaching and to predict his future dissatisfaction with teaching based on those difficulties. The questionnaire drafted especially for this study was completed by 130 participants (beginning teachers). The responses were analyzed, yielding six factors of difficulty. The findings indicate difficulties involving: 1) the interpersonal communication between beginning Arab teachers on the one hand and both students and parents on the other, 2) overload, 3) didactic and disciplinary knowledge, 4) support and recognition, 5) organizational climate (school culture), and 6) satisfaction. We examined the correlation between the beginning Arab teacher’s difficulties and his dissatisfaction with his work. The research findings reveal that the organizational climate (school culture) and overload factors significantly affect the satisfaction variable. With regard to the relation between the beginning Arab teacher’s general background characteristics and his difficulties in the first year, the background variable, specialization, was found to affect the factors of difficulty.

Re-Internationalization v/s Initial Internationalization: Comparison of Modes of Operations  [PDF]
Salman Ali
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.91017
Abstract:

Re-internationalization is defined as firms’ re-entry into international operations after they have abandoned all their previous internationalization efforts. In this paper, we report findings from a survey administered among senior-level managers of re-internationalized Indian firms where we studied the differences in firms’ choices in modes of operations during re-internationalization phase as compared to initial internationalization phase. The results from the survey indicated that firms tended to go for high involvement modes of operations during re-internationalization as compared to the relatively low involvement modes of operations undertaken during initial internationalization. This trend of going for higher involvement modes of operations was more visible in firms that had a presence in a relatively higher number of countries during the re-internationalization stage. This incremental nature of internationalization, i.e. going from initial low involvement modes of operations toward high involvement modes of operations as firms gained experience in both time and space from their initial through re-internationalization attempts, found support for the Uppsala model of internationalization. Being among the first studies on the topic, we expect this study to serve as a foundation for researchers to explore deeper related queries. This study also has meaningful practical and policy implications.

Rabies in Two Bison from Colorado
Jack C. Rhyan,Hana Van Campen,Matt McCollum,Pauline Nol,Rolan Davis,Jennifer P. Barfield,Mo Salman
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/906782
Abstract: Two adult female bison, housed in an outdoor research facility and observed daily, died suddenly three days apart. Minimal coordination and behavioral changes were observed in one animal the evening before being found in a moribund state. Malignant catarrhal fever was suspected in both bison due to a recent confirmed MCF case with similar course. The cause of death was not apparent from necropsy, but brains of both animals were strongly positive for rabies virus antigen by fluorescent antibody and/or immunohistochemical tests. Minimal to mild encephalitis with Negri bodies was observed on histopathology. The bison were located in an area that had not been endemic for skunk rabies; however, a case of rabies in a skunk had been discovered 1.6?km north of the bison paddock two months prior to the bison cases. 1. Introduction There are few reported cases of rabies in bison (Bison bison). A single case occurred in North Dakota in 1998 and was described in a case report [1]. Additionally, 3 cases in South Dakota bison have been reported in surveillance summaries since 1960 [2, 3], and a case in a European bison (Bison bonasus) in Russia has been reported [4]. We report here the occurrence of rabies in two bison due to a presumed skunk exposure at an outdoor research facility in Colorado. 2. Case Presentation The Colorado State University (CSU) Animal Population Health Institute Wildlife Research Facility (APHIWRF) occupies 2.6 hectares and is located on the foothills campus of CSU in Fort Collins, Colorado. At the time of the rabies cases, 60 bison, 12 white-tailed deer, and a colony of 13 feral swine were contained in the facility. The two bison reported here had been onsite for 9 months. On the morning of June 18, 2012, an adult female bison over 5 years of age was found dead. Disturbance of the soil near the carcass indicated leg paddling prior to death. No abnormalities had been noted in the animals at feeding time the prior evening. At necropsy, the bison had poor body condition, thoracic contusions, and focal fibrinous peritonitis and pleuritis. Rumen contents were considered dry. The cause of death was not apparent based on gross examination. The primary differential diagnosis was malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) as a previous case had occurred in the same herd two months earlier. Tissues were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histopathology and fresh spleen was submitted to CSU Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (CSU-VDL) for OHV-2 PCR. On the evening of June 20, 2012, a second, adult, female bison from the same
Modified technique for volumetric brain tumor measurements  [PDF]
Yasser M. Salman
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2009.21003
Abstract: Quantitative measurements of tumor response rate in three dimensions (3D) become more re-alistic with the use of advanced technology im-aging during therapy, especially when the tumor morphological changes remain subtle, irregular and difficult to assess by clinical examination. These quantitative measurements depend strongly on the accuracy of the segmentations methods used. Improvements on such methods yield to increase the accuracy of the segmentation process. Recently, the essential modification in the Traditional Region Growing (T-RG) method has been developed and a “Modified Region Growing Method” (MRGM) has been presented and gives more accurate boundary detection and holes filling after segmentation. In this pa-per, the new automatic calculation of the volu-metric size of brain tumor has been imple-mented based on Modified Region Growing Method. A comparative study and statistical analysis performed in this work show that the modified method gives more accurate and better performance for 3D volume measurements. The method was tested by 7 fully investigated pa-tients of different tumor type and shape, and better accurate results were reported using MRGM.
A Comparison and Performance of Different Optical Switching Architectures  [PDF]
Salman Ali AlQahtani
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.48063
Abstract: Optical Packet Switching (OPS) and transmission networks based on Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) have been increasingly deployed in the Internet infrastructure over the last decade in order to meet the huge increasing demand for bandwidth. Several different technologies have been developed for optical packet switching such as space switches, broadcast-and-select, input buffered switches and output buffered switches. These architectures vary based on several parameters such as the way of optical buffering, the placement of optical buffers, the way of solving the external blocking inherited from switching technologies in general and the components used to implement the WDM. This study surveys most of the exiting optical packet switching architectures. A simulation-based comparison of input buffered and output buffered architectures is presented. The performance analysis of the selected two architectures is derived using simulation program and compared at different scenarios. We found that the output buffered architectures give better performance than input buffered architectures. The simulation results show that the-broadcast-and-select architecture is attractive in terms that it has lees number of components compared to other switches.
Characteristics of “Exemplary Teachers” and Possible Factors Affecting Their Realization According to the Perception of Principals from the Arab Sector in Israel  [PDF]
Salman Ilaiyan, Rafi’ Safadi
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.71012
Abstract: This study examines the characteristics of exemplary teachers and the factors that are liable to inhibit/encourage their realization according to the perception of principals from the Arab sector in Israel. Ten principals were interviewed. They considered leading educational initiatives, coping with discipline problems, subject matter mastery, and employing a variety of teaching methods to be the exemplary teacher’s outstanding characteristics. Characteristics associated with ongoing professional development and relationships with colleagues, pupils, and parents were deemed less prominent. The principals did not manifest a unified stance vis-à-vis whether their schools’ physical-pedagogical infrastructure encouraged or inhibited the realization of the characteristics of exemplary teaching. It was recommended that in parallel to broadening didactic and disciplinary knowledge, it would be worthwhile fostering the ability of the teachers, in particular pre-service teachers and beginning teachers, to lead educational initiatives and establish interpersonal relationships, and giving them tools for coping with discipline problems.
Design and Construction of a Spiral Heat Exchanger  [PDF]
Jamshid Khorshidi, Salman Heidari
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2016.62021
Abstract: In this article, the performance and applications of a Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger are demonstrated. Also, governing equation of heat transfer phenomena in such heat exchangers is discussed. Regarding the governing equations, a LAB-sized model of this type of heat exchanger was designed and constructed. Galvanized Iron sheets were used as the heat transfer surfaces. Two Galvanized Iron sheets were rolled together around a central core and, as a result, two separated channels were made. Also, a predesign simulation of the heat exchanger was done using the Fluent software to predict the performance of the heat exchanger. First the geometry was made using Gambit software environment then the model was analyzed through Fluent. Because of less fouling, easier cleaning and high heat transfer coefficient, Spiral Heat Exchanger is a good alternative to the other types of heat exchangers, especially when it’s going to handle high fouling flows or highly viscous fluids. Low fouling rate of the heat exchanger, reduces the need of cleaning and therefore the out of service will be decreased. In the constructed heat exchanger, Nusselt number increases as the mass flow rate increases. Average Nusselt number is about 100 that is very good.
Contaminant Properties of Hospital Clinical Laboratory Wastewater: A Physiochemical and Microbiological Assessment  [PDF]
Beril Salman Akin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.75057
Abstract:

Hospital laboratory wastewater has been considered to significantly change the degree of contamination of especially the hospital wastewater. The present study investigated the hospital clinical laboratory wastewater and the pollution loads were assessed for pathogens, heavy metals, and organic materials. Composite samples were collected from clinical laboratory wastewater of a 350-bed hospital for a six-month period. Analyses for pH, TSS (Total Suspended Solid), BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), PO4-P, and Cl as well as heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Al, and Mn) were made in order to physiochemical properties of the samples. Bacterial isolation (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Acinetobaumanii, CNS—Coagulase- Negative Staphylococcus) and antigen-antibody analyses were conducted in order to find the microbiological pollution load of the wastewater. As a result of the study it was found that the hospital clinical laboratory wastewater was alkaline and COD/BOD ratio reached to a range of 10 - 12 in the wastewater. It was concluded that although the heavy metal concentrations were within the sewage discharge limits the said levels could pose health risk. It was also found that the wastewater entailed health risk due to pathogens.

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