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Efecto de Diferente Dosis de Lodo de la Crianza de Salmones en el Cultivo de Papa y su Efecto Residual en Ballica Anual
Teuber K,Nolberto; Salazar S,Francisco; Alfaro V,Marta; Valdebenito B,Aldo;
Agricultura Técnica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072007000400007
Abstract: intensive salmon farming generates organic residues which have a potential use in agricultural soils. the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three salmon sludge rates on potato (solanum tuberosum) crop development and its residual effect on annual ryegrass (lolium multiflorum). the field experiment was carried out on an andisoil from osorno serie (hapludands), located in osorno (40o35?s, 73o08?w), chile. treatment were three salmon sludge rates (50, 100, 200 t ha-1), a control (no fertilizer), and an inorganic fertilizer treatment. the salmon sludge was incorporated into the soil and then potato tubers cv. yagana-inia were planted. after the harvest, an annual ryegrass was seeded. total potato yield with inorganic fertilizer was 64.3 t ha-1, significantly superior to the results with the salmon sludge rates and the control (p ≤ 0.05). there were no differences (p > 0.05) among the fish sludge rates (45.6 to 47.5 t ha-1) and the control treatment (39.4 t ha-1). in addition, there were no differences (p > 0.05) on tuber weight, but the number of tubers per plant was different (p ≤ 0.05). annual ryegrass yield was significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between fertilizer treatments and the control. salmon sludge did not affect potato or ryegrass yield or development and increased p olsen and cation exchange capacity in the soil.
Efecto de Diferente Dosis de Lodo de la Crianza de Salmones en el Cultivo de Papa y su Efecto Residual en Ballica Anual Effect of Different Rates of Cage Salmon Sludge on Potato Crop and its Residual Effect on Annual Ryegrass
Nolberto Teuber K,Francisco Salazar S,Marta Alfaro V,Aldo Valdebenito B
Agricultura Técnica , 2007,
Abstract: La producción intensiva de salmones genera residuos orgánicos que tienen un uso potencial en suelos agrícolas, existiendo escasa información publicada de su utilización. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto de tres dosis de lodo de salmón en el desarrollo del cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum) y su efecto residual en ballica anual (Lolium multiflorum). El ensayo se estableció en un suelo Andisol de la serie Osorno (Typic Hapludands), ubicado en Osorno (40o35’S, 73o08’O), Chile. Los tratamientos fueron tres dosis de lodo (50, 100 y 200 t ha-1), un control (sin fertilización orgánica e inorgánica) y un tratamiento de fertilización inorgánica. El lodo se incorporó al suelo, posteriormente se plantó papa cv. Yagana-INIA y después de la cosecha se sembró ballica anual cv. Sabalan. El rendimiento de papa con fertilización inorgánica fue 64,3 t ha-1, superior a los resultados obtenidos con las dosis de lodo y el control (P ≤ 0,05). No hubo diferencias estadísticas (P > 0,05) entre las distintas dosis de lodo evaluadas (45,6 a 47,5 t ha-1) y tampoco con el control (39,4 t ha-1). No se observaron diferencias (P > 0,05) en el peso por tubérculo, pero el número de tubérculos por planta fue diferente (P ≤ 0,05). El rendimiento de ballica anual fue significativamente diferente (P ≤ 0,05) en los tratamientos fertilizados comparados con el control. El lodo no afectó la emergencia ni el desarrollo de los cultivos, pero incrementó el contenido de P Olsen y la suma de bases de intercambio en el suelo. Intensive salmon farming generates organic residues which have a potential use in agricultural soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three salmon sludge rates on potato (Solanum tuberosum) crop development and its residual effect on annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). The field experiment was carried out on an Andisoil from Osorno Serie (Hapludands), located in Osorno (40o35’S, 73o08’W), Chile. Treatment were three salmon sludge rates (50, 100, 200 t ha-1), a control (no fertilizer), and an inorganic fertilizer treatment. The salmon sludge was incorporated into the soil and then potato tubers cv. Yagana-INIA were planted. After the harvest, an annual ryegrass was seeded. Total potato yield with inorganic fertilizer was 64.3 t ha-1, significantly superior to the results with the salmon sludge rates and the control (P ≤ 0.05). There were no differences (P > 0.05) among the fish sludge rates (45.6 to 47.5 t ha-1)and the control treatment (39.4 t ha-1). In addition, there were no differences (P > 0.05) on tuber weight, but the num
Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Losses in a Grazing System with Different Stocking Rates in a Volcanic Soil Pérdidas de Nitrógeno, Fósforo y Potasio de un Sistema Pastoril con Distinta Carga Animal en un Suelo Volcánico
Marta Alfaro,Francisco Salazar,Sergio Iraira,Nolberto Teuber
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2008,
Abstract: In Chile there is little information on nutrient losses in livestock systems. The experiment was carried out between 2004 and 2006. Two stocking rates (3.5 and 5.0 steers ha-1) were tested under rotational grazing with Black and White Friesian steers on a permanent pasture (67.5 kg N and 40 kg P ha-1 yr-1). To quantify surface runoff losses (N, P, K), three surface lysimeters (5 x 5 m) per treatment were established. N and K leaching losses were estimated with ceramic cups. Runoff and leachate samples were individually analyzed for available and total N, reactive (RP) and total P, and K. Dissolved organic N (DON) and organic P (OP) were estimated as the difference between total and available forms. The stocking rate did not increase total N, P and K losses (P > 0.05). Losses in surface runoff were < 0.5 kg N, < 0.05 kg P and < 0.6 kg K ha-1 yr-1, respectively, due to the low amount of runoff measured. Nitrogen leaching losses were high (11 up to 71 kg ha-1 yr-1) and K leaching losses were low (3 to 5 kg ha-1 yr-1). Nitrogen in runoff was mainly lost as DON (50%). Nitrogen leaching losses were mainly as nitrate (70%). Phosphorus was lost as RP (70%). Thus, stocking rates of 5.0 steers ha-1 are plausible, but fertilizer application should be avoided in rainfall periods during the year to reduce incidental nutrient losses. Pérdidas de nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio de un sistema pastoril con distinta carga animal en un suelo volcánicoEn Chile existe poca información sobre la pérdida de nutrientes en sistemas ganaderos. El experimento se efectuó entre el 2004 y el 2006. Se evaluaron dos cargas animales (3,5 y 5,0 terneros ha-1) bajo pastoreo rotativo con terneros Holstein Friesian sobre pradera permanente (67,5 kg N y 40 kg P ha-1 a o-1). Para cuantificar las pérdidas por arrastre superficial (N, P, K), se instalaron tres lisímetros superficiales (5 x 5 m) por tratamiento. Las pérdidas de N y K por lixiviación se estimaron con cápsulas cerámicas. Las muestras de arrastre superficial y lixiviado se analizaron individualmente para N disponible y total, P reactivo (RP) y total, y K. El nitrógeno orgánico disuelto (DON) y el P orgánico (OP) se estimaron como la diferencia entre los valores totales y los disponibles. La carga animal no incrementó las pérdidas de N, P y K (P > 0,05). Las pérdidas por arrastre superficial fueron < 0,5 kg N, < 0,05 kg P y < 0,6 kg K ha-1 a o-1, respectivamente, debido al escaso arrastre superficial medido. Las pérdidas de N por lixiviación fueron altas (11 a 71 kg ha-1 a o-1) y las de K bajas (3 a 5 kg ha-1 a o-1). El N en arrastre s
Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Losses in a Grazing System with Different Stocking Rates in a Volcanic Soil
Alfaro,Marta; Salazar,Francisco; Iraira,Sergio; Teuber,Nolberto; Villarroel,Dagoberto; Ramírez,Luis;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392008000200004
Abstract: in chile there is little information on nutrient losses in livestock systems. the experiment was carried out between 2004 and 2006. two stocking rates (3.5 and 5.0 steers ha-1) were tested under rotational grazing with black and white friesian steers on a permanent pasture (67.5 kg n and 40 kg p ha-1 yr-1). to quantify surface runoff losses (n, p, k), three surface lysimeters (5 x 5 m) per treatment were established. n and k leaching losses were estimated with ceramic cups. runoff and leachate samples were individually analyzed for available and total n, reactive (rp) and total p, and k. dissolved organic n (don) and organic p (op) were estimated as the difference between total and available forms. the stocking rate did not increase total n, p and k losses (p > 0.05). losses in surface runoff were < 0.5 kg n, < 0.05 kg p and < 0.6 kg k ha-1 yr-1, respectively, due to the low amount of runoff measured. nitrogen leaching losses were high (11 up to 71 kg ha-1 yr-1) and k leaching losses were low (3 to 5 kg ha-1 yr-1). nitrogen in runoff was mainly lost as don (50%). nitrogen leaching losses were mainly as nitrate (70%). phosphorus was lost as rp (70%). thus, stocking rates of 5.0 steers ha-1 are plausible, but fertilizer application should be avoided in rainfall periods during the year to reduce incidental nutrient losses.
Evidencias microscópicas y moleculares de la presencia de fitoplasmas en plantas de murta (Ugni molinae Turcz: ) afectadas por la enfermedad "escoba de bruja" Microscopic and molecular evidence of phytoplasma in murta plants (Ugni molinae Turcz: ) affected by witches'-broom disease
Nancy Andrade S.,María Villagra H.,Nolberto Arismendi S.
Tropical Plant Pathology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/s1982-56762009000400007
Abstract:
Presence of a Phytoplasma Associated with Witches?-Broom Disease in Ugni molinae Turcz. and Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer Determined by DAPI, PCR, and DNA Sequencing
Arismendi S,Nolberto; Andrade S,Nancy; Riegel Sch,Ricardo; Carrillo Ll,Roberto;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392010000100003
Abstract: murta (ugni molinae turcz.) and common chaura (gaultheria phillyreifolia (pers.) sleumer) are native species of chile. plants of both species have shown over-branching like witches' broom. the causal agents of these symptoms in many plants are phytoplasma. to verify the presence of these microorganisms, dapi (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining analysis and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) were performed in symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. positive pcr samples were sequenced to identify the pathogens involved. in individuals of both species with witches? broom symptoms, dapi staining showed fluorescent bodies in the phloem tissues, but not in asymptomatic plants. verification by nested-pcr, phytoplasmatic dna was amplified from diseased murta and chaura, but not in apparently healthy plants. sequencing of amplified products allowed locating phytoplasma within the ash yellows group (16srvii) and related to candidatus phytoplasma fraxini. this is the first report of phytoplasma in chilean native species. considering the diversity of plant species infected by the ash yellows group suggests that g. phillyreifolia and u. molinae could be a phytoplasma reservoir for other economically important agricultural crops.
Presence of a Phytoplasma Associated with Witches’-Broom Disease in Ugni molinae Turcz. and Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer Determined by DAPI, PCR, and DNA Sequencing Presencia de un Fitoplasma Asociado a la Enfermedad de "Escoba de Bruja" en Ugni molinae Turcz. y Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer Determinado Mediante DAPI, PCR y Secuenciación de ADN
Nolberto Arismendi S,Nancy Andrade S,Ricardo Riegel Sch,Roberto Carrillo Ll
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2010,
Abstract: Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) and common chaura (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer) are native species of Chile. Plants of both species have shown over-branching like witches' broom. The causal agents of these symptoms in many plants are phytoplasma. To verify the presence of these microorganisms, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed in symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. Positive PCR samples were sequenced to identify the pathogens involved. In individuals of both species with witches’ broom symptoms, DAPI staining showed fluorescent bodies in the phloem tissues, but not in asymptomatic plants. Verification by nested-PCR, phytoplasmatic DNA was amplified from diseased murta and chaura, but not in apparently healthy plants. Sequencing of amplified products allowed locating phytoplasma within the ash yellows group (16SrVII) and related to Candidatus phytoplasma fraxini. This is the first report of phytoplasma in Chilean native species. Considering the diversity of plant species infected by the ash yellows group suggests that G. phillyreifolia and U. molinae could be a phytoplasma reservoir for other economically important agricultural crops. La murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) y la chaura común (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers.) Sleumer) son especies nativas de Chile. En plantas de ambas especies se ha observado una sobre-ramificación de tipo "escoba de bruja". En muchas plantas los agentes causales de esta sintomatología son fitoplasmas. Para verificar la presencia de estos microorganismos se analizaron plantas con y sin síntomas mediante tinciones DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-fenilindol) y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Muestras positivas en la PCR fueron secuenciadas para identificar al fitopatógeno implicado. En individuos de ambas especies con síntomas de escoba de bruja, la tinción DAPI permitió observar cuerpos fluorescentes en los tejidos del floema, situación que no ocurrió en plantas asintomáticas. En la verificación mediante PCR-anidada, se logró amplificar ADN fitoplasmático en plantas de murta y chaura enfermas, pero no en plantas aparentemente sanas. La secuenciación de los productos amplificados permitió localizar al fitoplasma dentro del grupo “ash yellows" (16SrVII) y relacionado al “Candidatus Phytoplasma fraxini”. éste es el primer reporte que caracteriza a un fitoplasma en especies nativas chilenas. Considerando la diversidad de especies de plantas infectadas por el grupo ash yellows, sugiere que G. phillyreifolia y U. molinae podrían constituir un reservorio
Malaria en Chile: 1913 - 2001
Schenone F,Hugo; Olea N,Andrea; Rojas S,Antonio; García D,Nolberto;
Revista médica de Chile , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872002001000013
Abstract: background: malaria was restricted to the i region of chile, being anopheles pseudopunctipennis the only vector species. in 1936 the parasitosis affected more than 50% of the population and 62.4% of military recruits, proceeding from southern regions became infected. from 1937 to 1947, an antimalaria campaign was carried out, stressing actions on the battle against the vector and the treatment of malaria infected individuals. since april 1945 no autochthonous cases of malaria have been detected. aim: to update the situation of malaria in chile. methods: 1) imported malaria: analysis of occasional publications on the subject (1945-1988) and the annual reports of the ministry of health department of epidemiology (1990-2001). annual reports on the anopheles specimens collected -mostly larvae- in the provinces of arica and iquique and examined in the parasitology unit of the school of medicine, university of chile, during the period 1980-2001. results: 1) imported malaria. a total of 24 cases were published in the period 1945-1988. in the 1980-2001 period, the ministry of health recorded 66 cases with 5 (8.8%) deaths. 2) anophelines: only in 1984, 1985, 1998 and 2001 a. pseudopunctipennis foci were detected. entomological surveillance was stressed and insecticides were applied on these focuses. conclusions: autochthonous malaria does not exist in chile since 1945. the detection of malaria cases in countries where the parasitosis was eradicated, can be the result of tourism or migrations. in chile, the environmental programs of arica and iquique perform periodical surveys in localities where mosquitoes exist. when a. pseudopunctipennis is found, the entomological vigilance is stressed and insecticide applications are reiterated until the situation is controlled (rev méd chile 2002; 130: 1170-6)
Malaria en Chile: 1913 - 2001 Malaria in Chile from 1913 to 2001
Hugo Schenone F,Andrea Olea N,Antonio Rojas S,Nolberto García D
Revista médica de Chile , 2002,
Abstract: Background: Malaria was restricted to the I Region of Chile, being Anopheles pseudopunctipennis the only vector species. In 1936 the parasitosis affected more than 50% of the population and 62.4% of military recruits, proceeding from Southern regions became infected. From 1937 to 1947, an antimalaria campaign was carried out, stressing actions on the battle against the vector and the treatment of malaria infected individuals. Since April 1945 no autochthonous cases of malaria have been detected. Aim: To update the situation of malaria in Chile. Methods: 1) Imported malaria: Analysis of occasional publications on the subject (1945-1988) and the annual reports of the Ministry of Health Department of Epidemiology (1990-2001). Annual reports on the Anopheles specimens collected -mostly larvae- in the provinces of Arica and Iquique and examined in the Parasitology Unit of the School of Medicine, University of Chile, during the period 1980-2001. Results: 1) Imported malaria. A total of 24 cases were published in the period 1945-1988. In the 1980-2001 period, the Ministry of Health recorded 66 cases with 5 (8.8%) deaths. 2) Anophelines: Only in 1984, 1985, 1998 and 2001 A. pseudopunctipennis foci were detected. Entomological surveillance was stressed and insecticides were applied on these focuses. Conclusions: Autochthonous malaria does not exist in Chile since 1945. The detection of malaria cases in countries where the parasitosis was eradicated, can be the result of tourism or migrations. In Chile, the Environmental Programs of Arica and Iquique perform periodical surveys in localities where mosquitoes exist. When A. pseudopunctipennis is found, the entomological vigilance is stressed and insecticide applications are reiterated until the situation is controlled (Rev Méd Chile 2002; 130: 1170-6)
Trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo y psicosis: ?un trastorno esquizo-obsesivo?
Rincón Salazar,David Andrés; Salazar Salazar,Luis Fernando;
Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría , 2006,
Abstract: objectives: to describe the case of a young patient who suffers from schizophrenic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. methods: case report. conclusions: although data are variable, it&#;s unquestionable that frequent comorbidity exist among ocd, psychotic symptoms and particularly schizophrenia.
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