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Protein Hydrolysates from Agricultural Crops—Bioactivity and Potential for Functional Food Development
Aoife L. McCarthy,Yvonne C. O'Callaghan,Nora M. O'Brien
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3010112
Abstract: There has been an unprecedented demand for inexpensive plant-derived protein hydrolysates in recent years, owing to their potential nutritional applications. This review examines existing evidence regarding protein hydrolysates from agricultural crops such as wheat, soy, rapeseed, sunflower and barley. The bioactivity of these protein hydrolysates, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities are discussed. In addition to evidence regarding their potential to enhance human nutrition, the effect of the hydrolysates on the techno-functional properties of foods will be reviewed.
Elusive Zeros under Newton’s Method  [PDF]
Trevor M. OBrien, Gareth E. Roberts
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.515231
Abstract:

Though well-known for its simplicity and efficiency, Newton’s method applied to a complex polynomial can fail quite miserably, even on a relatively large open set of initial guesses. In this work, we present some analytic and numerical results for Newton’s method applied to the complex quartic family \"\" where \"\" is a parameter. The symmetric location of the roots of?allows for some easy reductions. In particular, when λ is either real or purely imaginary, standard techniques from real dynamical systems theory can be employed for rigorous analysis. Classifying those λ-values where Newton’s method fails on an open set leads to complex and aesthetically intriguing geometry in the λ-parameter plane, complete with fractal-like figures such as Mandelbrot-like sets, tricorns and swallows.

Visualizing Rank Deficient Models: A Row Equation Geometry of Rank Deficient Matrices and Constrained-Regression
Robert M. OBrien
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038923
Abstract: Situations often arise in which the matrix of independent variables is not of full column rank. That is, there are one or more linear dependencies among the independent variables. This paper covers in detail the situation in which the rank is one less than full column rank and extends this coverage to include cases of even greater rank deficiency. The emphasis is on the row geometry of the solutions based on the normal equations. The author shows geometrically how constrained-regression/generalized-inver?seswork in this situation to provide a solution in the face of rank deficiency.
The Extent and Cause of the Pre-White Dwarf Instability Strip
M. Sean O'Brien
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/308613
Abstract: One of the least understood aspects of white dwarf evolution is the process by which they are formed. We are aided, however, by the fact that many H- and He-deficient pre-white dwarfs (PWDs) are multiperiodic g-mode pulsators. Pulsations in PWDs provide a unique opportunity to probe their interiors, which are otherwise inaccesible to direct observation. Until now, however, the nature of the pulsation mechanism, the precise boundaries of the instability strip, and the mass distribution of the PWDs were complete mysteries. These problems must be addressed before we can apply knowledge of pulsating PWDs to improve understanding of white dwarf formation. This paper lays the groundwork for future theoretical investigations of these stars. In recent years, Whole Earth Telescope observations led to determination of mass and luminosity for the majority of the (non-central star) PWD pulsators. With these observations, we identify the common properties and trends PWDs exhibit as a class. We find that pulsators of low mass have higher luminosity, suggesting the range of instability is highly mass-dependent. The observed trend of decreasing periods with decreasing luminosity matches a decrease in the maximum (standing-wave) g-mode period across the instability strip. We show that the red edge can be caused by the lengthening of the driving timescale beyond the maximum sustainable period. This result is general for ionization-based driving mechanisms, and it explains the mass-dependence of the red edge. The observed form of the mass-dependence provides a vital starting point for future theoretical investigations of the driving mechanism. We also show that the blue edge probably remains undetected because of selection effects arising from rapid evolution.
Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim-Induced Rhabdomyolysis in an Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report  [PDF]
Pamela M. Moye, Sara Manasen, Kristen OBrien
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2017.612037
Abstract: Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (TMP-SMX)-induced rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of a commonly used antibiotic. This is a case report of a 43-year old immunocompetent African American woman with a history of depression and chronic alcohol consumption who presented to the emergency department (ED) with worsening bilateral leg pain. Before presentation, the patient was prescribed a twice daily dose of TMP-SMX for a urinary tract infection. The patient reported the development of intensifying leg pain after taking five doses of TMP-SMX. On presentation to the ED she was hemodynamically stable, afebrile, and leg pain intensity 10 out of 10. The patient admitted to daily alcohol consumption and taking vortioxetine 10 mg per day for treatment of depression. Initial labs drawn in the ED showed an elevated creatine kinase (CK) of 26,231 U/L and a normal serum creatinine (SCr) of 1 mg/dL. Through patient history and laboratory tests, common causes of rhabdomyolysis were ruled out. Treatment was initiated with IV fluids plus thiamine and folic acid supplementation, TMP-SMX was discontinued, and vortioxetine 10 mg per day was continued until hospital day five. The patient began to show improvement in lower extremity pain and tenderness and was discharged on hospital day eight with minimal residual leg pain and a CK of 2809 U/L. This case report presents only the third incidence of an immunocompetent patient developing TMP-SMX-induced rhabdomyolysis. This case highlights an opportunity for a pharmacist’s intervention and the need for future research to determine risk factors of TMP-SMX-induced rhabdomyolysis in immunocompetent patients.
Outcome and Recommendations of the Working Group on Reimbursement of Diagnostic Measures - Recommendations and Prioritisation
O'Brien M,Woloszczuk W
Journal für Mineralstoffwechsel , 2006,
Abstract:
Biologic Augmented Microdrilling Surgery for Multiple and Large Full-Thickness Cartilage Lesions in the Knee: Early Clinical and Radiological Results  [PDF]
Joseph E. Broyles, M. Adaire OBrien, Stephanie T. Broyles, M. Patrick Stagg
Surgical Science (SS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2017.82013
Abstract: Background: Various biologic treatments are available for articular cartilage lesions in the knee, but no one exists that is applicable to the full range of chondral disease and that is compliant with United States Food and Drug Administration regulations. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes following microdrilling surgery augmented with postoperative injections of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC), platelet rich plasma (PRP) and hyaluronic acid (HA). Methods: Eighteen patients with at least one symptomatic, full-thickness chondral lesion underwent arthroscopic microdrilling surgery. Immediately following surgery, patients received an intra-articular injection of fresh BMAC, PRP, and HA. This injection was repeated once per week for 5 consecutive weeks. At 4 and 12 months postoperatively, patients received 3 additional weekly injections for a total of 12 injections. Outcome Measures: IKDC (International Knee Documentation Committee) scores, KS (Knee Society) scores and plain radiographs. Results: The mean treated area was 6.2 ± 4.5 (range, 0.6 - 14.7) cm2. The mean preoperative IKDC and KS scores (±SE) were 43.0 ± 3.2 and 68.3 ± 3.6 respectively. At 24 months postoperatively, IKDC and KS scores improved to 85.3 ± 4.2 and 94.7 ± 4.4, respectively; both changes from baseline were significant (p < 0.001). Radiographic analysis revealed that 9 of 18 patients in this series had joint space (JS) narrowing preoperatively. At 24 months, there was a 0.7 ± 0.3 mm overall increase in JS (p = 0.05). This change was greater in patients with preoperative JS < 2 mm, with an increase of 1.4 ± 0.5 mm (p for the difference between groups = 0.1). Conclusions: Microdrilling of cartilage lesions augmented with BMAC, PRP, and HA may be a viable treatment for a range of chondral disease with good early clinical and radiological results.
Protein Disorder and Short Conserved Motifs in Disordered Regions Are Enriched near the Cytoplasmic Side of Single-Pass Transmembrane Proteins
Ilias Stavropoulos, Nora Khaldi, Norman E. Davey, Kevin OBrien, Finian Martin, Denis C. Shields
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044389
Abstract: Intracellular juxtamembrane regions of transmembrane proteins play pivotal roles in cell signalling, mediated by protein-protein interactions. Disordered protein regions, and short conserved motifs within them, are emerging as key determinants of many such interactions. Here, we investigated whether disorder and conserved motifs are enriched in the juxtamembrane area of human single-pass transmembrane proteins. Conserved motifs were defined as short disordered regions that were much more conserved than the adjacent disordered residues. Human single-pass proteins had higher mean disorder in their cytoplasmic segments than their extracellular parts. Some, but not all, of this effect reflected the shorter length of the cytoplasmic tail. A peak of cytoplasmic disorder was seen at around 30 residues from the membrane. We noted a significant increase in the incidence of conserved motifs within the disordered regions at the same location, even after correcting for the extent of disorder. We conclude that elevated disorder within the cytoplasmic tail of many transmembrane proteins is likely to be associated with enrichment for signalling interactions mediated by conserved short motifs.
Effects of Weight Loss on Pericardial Fat and Left Ventricular Mass Assessed with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Morbid Obesity  [PDF]
Stephan M. Schneiter, Ranjana Warrier, Lisa Lefkovits, Cheryl Laurie, Paul E. OBrien, Andrew J. Taylor
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.24062
Abstract: Background: Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Significant weight loss has beneficial effects on left ventricular structure, in particular on regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We therefore evaluated the consequences of significant weight loss on left ventricular morphology, hemodynamics and pericardial fat. Methods: We performed volumetric cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging before and after significant weight loss due to laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). CMR was used to measure cardiac mass, volume and function, as well as to quantify pericardial fat. Results: Eleven patients (age 40.5 ± 10 yrs, body mass index 42.5 ± 3.9 kg/m2) underwent CMR imaging before and a median 15.4 months after gastric banding. The BMI declined by 9.3 ± 3.3 kg/m2 (p < 0.001) with an average excess weight loss (EWL) of 54.7% ± 23.6%. The left ventricular mass (LVM) decreased from 130.0 g ± 35.4 g to 117.0 g ± 34.9 g (p = 0.003), whereas the left ventricular chamber volumes and sys-tolic function remained unchanged. After LAGB surgery the pericardial fat volume was reduced by 34.4 ml ± 22.1 ml (p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation for change in pericardial fat volume with change in LVM (R = 0.67, p = 0.024), with no relationship between percentage of EWL and change in LVM (p = 0.49). Discussion: Significant weight loss in obesity is accompanied by a marked regression of LVH, with no apparent change in cardiac volume or function. The local effect of a diminished amount of pericardiac fat tissue may be more important than absolute weight loss with respect to the regression of LVH in obesity.
The Influence of Culture Medium Type on Cellular Phenotype of Canine Adipose Derived Stem Cells  [PDF]
Kristina M. Kiefer, G. Elizabeth Pluhar, Michael G. Conzemius, Timothy D. OBrien
Open Journal of Regenerative Medicine (OJRM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrm.2014.31004
Abstract:

Canine adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) hold a great promise for the therapy of osteoarthritis in veterinary medicine. Current therapy is an autologous, stromal vascular fraction. Allogeneic ASCs provide many advantages, including efficient, cost-effective treatments while eliminating a surgical procedure in a diseased animal. Cultured ASCs can be expanded and characterized, allowing selection of desirable qualities. Use of allogeneic ASCs requires selection of a culture medium that provides consistent, desirable cellular products. The supplements within a medium can greatly influence cellular phenotypes. We hypothesized that medium type influenced cellular phenotype, allowing selection of a specified cellular product for clinical applications. We evaluated ASCs derived from adipose tissue of six dogs, assessing mRNA expression of proinflammatory: interleukin-1b, cyclooxygenase-2, and anti-inflammatory mediators: tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 and interleukin -1 receptor antagonist, via quantitative RT-PCR prior to, and following culture in five cell culture media: basic cell growth medium (BGM), Keratinocyte N acetyl-L-cysteine supplemented (KNAC) medium, Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cell (MAPC) medium, serum free medium (SFM) and xeno-free medium. Major histocompatability complex I (MHCI), major histocompatability complex II (MHCII), CD44 and CD90 immunophenotypes were assessed via flow cytometry analysis. Tri-lineage differentiation (bone, adipose and cartilage tissue) was utilized to verify multipotency. SFM and xeno-free culture conditions did not produce cell expansion sufficient to assess phenotype. ASCs prior to culture had wide variability in all mediator levels, while culturing in the remaining conditions resulted in more predictable expression levels of inflammatory mediators, with a decrease in all levels. Cultured ASCs retained expression of cell surface markers MHCI, CD44 and CD90, while decreasing MHCII expression levels. KNAC and MAPC medium conditions consistently produced

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