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Consumer Preference and Willingness to Pay for an Officially Certified Quality Label: Implications for Traditional Food Producers
Padilla,Carlos; Villalobos,Pablo; Spiller,Achim; Henry,Guy;
Agricultura Técnica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072007000300009
Abstract: a study was carried out in chile in order to evaluate consumer preference and willingness to pay for a certified quality label on traditional food products, employing a conjoint analysis method. a total of 234 individuals were interviewed in two chilean cities, santiago and talca. a homemade blackberry (rubus ulmifolius) marmalade and three product attributes with their respective levels were chosen (price, quality label and jar appearance). nine hypothetical product concepts were generated applying an orthogonal design. respondents were asked to rank the product concepts according to their preferences. the results obtained through the conjoint model suggest that an ?officially certified quality label? is the most important attribute influencing consumer choice behavior. likewise, a positive willingness to pay for such an attribute is observed. as a differentiation and quality management tool, an official certified quality label seems to be a good alternative to improve the situation and market opportunities for small farmers. it is important to notice that this study corresponds to the first empirical approach carried out in chile, which relates the conjoint analysis method with consumer preferences for this kind of food product
Consumer Preference and Willingness to Pay for an Officially Certified Quality Label: Implications for Traditional Food Producers Preferencia y Disposición del Consumidor a Pagar por un Sello de Calidad Certificada: Implicancias para Productores de Alimentos de Origen Campesino
Carlos Padilla,Pablo Villalobos,Achim Spiller,Guy Henry
Agricultura Técnica , 2007,
Abstract: A study was carried out in Chile in order to evaluate consumer preference and willingness to pay for a certified quality label on traditional food products, employing a conjoint analysis method. A total of 234 individuals were interviewed in two Chilean cities, Santiago and Talca. A homemade blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius) marmalade and three product attributes with their respective levels were chosen (price, quality label and jar appearance). Nine hypothetical product concepts were generated applying an orthogonal design. Respondents were asked to rank the product concepts according to their preferences. The results obtained through the conjoint model suggest that an “officially certified quality label” is the most important attribute influencing consumer choice behavior. Likewise, a positive willingness to pay for such an attribute is observed. As a differentiation and quality management tool, an official certified quality label seems to be a good alternative to improve the situation and market opportunities for small farmers. It is important to notice that this study corresponds to the first empirical approach carried out in Chile, which relates the conjoint analysis method with consumer preferences for this kind of food product Con el objetivo de evaluar la preferencia y disposición a pagar del consumidor chileno por un sello de calidad certificada usado en productos alimenticios de origen campesino, se llevó a cabo un estudio empleando la metodología de análisis conjunto. Un total de 234 consumidores de las ciudades de Talca y Santiago fueron consultados, respondiendo un cuestionario especialmente dise ado. Como producto base para el análisis conjunto se utilizó una mermelada de mora (Rubus ulmifolius) de elaboración artesanal. Además, un conjunto de tres atributos (precio, sello de calidad y presentación del envase) fueron considerados en la evaluación. Mediante un dise o ortogonal, se definieron nueve conceptos de productos hipotéticos, los cuales fueron ordenados por los consumidores de acuerdo a sus preferencias. Los resultados obtenidos a través del modelo conjunto se alan que un “sello de calidad certificada” es el atributo más importante que domina el comportamiento de elección de los consumidores, observándose una positiva disposición a pagar por esta característica. Como herramienta de gestión de calidad y diferenciación, un sello de calidad certificada parece ser una buena alternativa para mejorar las condiciones y oportunidades de mercado de los productores de alimentos respaldados por una tradición campesina. Cabe destacar que ésta es la
Determinants of Trust in the International Fresh Produce Business Between Ghana and Europe
Amos Gyau,Achim Spiller
International Business Management , 2012,
Abstract: In the fresh fruit and vegetable trade between Ghana and Europe, there seems to be higher level of mistrust between the exporters and the importers. As a result, the exporters and the importers incur high transaction cost in the form of establishing, monitoring and enforcing their agreements with each other. This implies that if the exporters and the importers are able to build trust, their transaction costs can be lowered and performance improved. In this study, we determine how Ghanaian fresh fruit and vegetable exporters and European importers can build trust with one another by identifying the factors that influence development of trust in their business relationships. We based our studies on 101 interviews with Ghanaian exporters of fresh fruits and vegetables. The study revealed that whereas non-economic satisfaction, price satisfaction and goal attainment have positive impact on trust, excessive use of power and cultural dissimilarities are related negatively to trust. We conclude that exporters and importers can reduce transaction cost in their exchange if they build trust with one another through the provision of good economic incentives, exploit less power and ensure understanding organizational practices of each other.
The Development of Precision Thin Film Resistors for Submerged Repeater Applications
D. O. Spiller
Active and Passive Electronic Components , 1978, DOI: 10.1155/apec.5.9
Abstract:
New Pharmaceutical Approaches to the Treatment of IBS:Future Development & Research
N. Coleman, R. Spiller
Annals of Gastroenterology , 2007,
Abstract: SUMMARY Current approaches to treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) aim to normalise disturbed intestinal physiology. The most effective centrally acting drugs are tricyclic antidepressants. Alosetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist is effective in women with diarrhea-predominant IBS whilst tegaserod and prucalopride are 5-HT4 agonists enhancing bowel motility in constipation-predominant IBS. Serotonergic receptor modulation has been the first targeted pharmacological intervention. The development of new drugs constitutes a major challenge as there are many targets along the brain-gut axis and the enteric nervous system (ENS). Newer tricyclic antidepressants with fewer side effects and corticotrophin releasing factor-1 (CRF-1) antagonists are examples of future centrally acting drugs. Agents that alter visceral sensitivity include kappa-opioid agonists (fedotozine, trimebutine, asimadoline), alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists (clonidine, lidamidine), tachykinin receptor antagonists (neurokinin A, substance P) and other experimental anti-nociceptive drugs (GABA-B receptor agonists). COX-2 inhibitors may be effective for postinfectious IBS. Drugs potentially useful in controlling intestinal motility and secretion other than serotonergic receptors modulators, include muscarinic receptors antagonists (derifenacin, zamenifenacin), octreotide and CCK-1 receptor antagonists (dexloglumide). Neurotrophins (NT- 3 and brain derived neurotrophic factor) are promising factors for the treatment of IBS patients with constipation. The development of new and effective drugs for IBS requires a more detailed understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms, a fact that will allow us a more targeted intervention. Key words: Irritable bavel syndrome, visceral sensitivity tricyclic antidepressants, muscarinic receptors
Phase noise of dispersion-managed solitons
Elaine Spiller,Gino Biondini
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: We quantify noise-induced phase deviations of dispersion-managed solitons in optical fiber communications and femtosecond lasers. We first develop a perturbation theory for the dispersion-managed nonlinear Schrodinger equation (DMNLSE) in order to compute the noise-induced mean and variance of the soliton parameters. We then use the analytical results to guide importance-sampled Monte-Carlo simulations of the noise-driven DMNLSE. Comparison of these results with those from the original, un-averaged, governing equations confirm the validity of the DMNLSE as a model for many dispersion-managed systems, and quantify the increased robustness of dispersion-managed solitons with respect to noise-induced phase jitter.
A protected vortex exciton qubit
Suvabrata De,Tim Spiller
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: We propose a protected qubit which is `dual' to a suggestion of a superconducting current mirror qubit [A. Kitaev, arXiv:0609441 (2006)]. Our construction can be regarded as the magnetic analogue of Kitaev's proposal: it inherits the intrinsic fault-tolerance of the current mirror qubit, but may perform better than it in the laboratory, since magnetic noise is generally less of a problem than electric noise. We adapt the scheme for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation proposed by Kitaev to our construction.
Modification of Fox-Wolfram Moments for Hadron Colliders
Laurence Anthony Spiller
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Collisions of composite particles impose an arbitrary boost in the longitudinal direction on a given event. This implies that the centre-of-mass frame at hadron colliders is undetermined for processes with missing energy in the final state. This motivates the modification of the Fox-Wolfram moments such that the moments for a given event are identical when viewed in the lab or centre-of-mass frame of the beam. The resulting moments are invariant under rotations in the plane transverse to the beam and boosts parallel to the beam. These moments are then used to demonstrate improved signal separation in the channel where the Higgs decays to two b-quarks while being produced in association with a vector boson.
Mycoplasma hominis Variable Adherence-Associated Antigen: A Major Adhesin and Highly Variable Surface Membrane Protein  [PDF]
Rebecca J. Brown, Victoria J. Chalker, Owen B. Spiller
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.411080
Abstract: Mycoplasma hominis is a member of the genus mycoplasma and has only been isolated from humans. It is most frequently isolated from the urogenital tract in the absence of symptoms, but has been isolated from wounds, brain abscess, inflamed joints, blood and placenta from pregnancy with adverse outcomes (especially preterm birth and occasionally term stillbirth). Controversy surrounds whether this organism is a commensal or a pathogen; however, Mycoplasma hominis has been shown to induce preterm birth and foetal lung injury in an experimental primate model as a sole pathogen. These bacteria are known to exist as a parasitic infection, due to a number of missing synthetic and metabolism pathway enzymes from their minimal genome; therefore, the ability to adhere to host cells is important. Here we provide a review that clarifies the different nomenclature (variable adherence-associated antigen and P50) that has been used to investigate the major surface adhesin for this organism, as well as reported mechanisms responsible for turning off its expression. Variation in the structure of this protein can be used to separate strains into six categories, a method that we were able to use to distinguish and characterise 12 UK strains isolated from between 1983 and 2012. We propose that the Vaa should be used in further investigations to determine if commensal populations and those that are associated with disease utilise different forms of this adhesin, as this is under-studied and identification of pathogenic determinants is overdue for this organism.
Encoding graphs into quantum states: an axiomatic approach
Radu Ionicioiu,Tim P. Spiller
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.062313
Abstract: A fundamental problem in quantum information is to describe efficiently multipartite quantum states. An efficient representation in terms of graphs exists for several families of quantum states (graph, cluster, stabilizer states), motivating us to extend this construction to other classes. We introduce an axiomatic framework for mapping graphs to quantum states of a suitable physical system. Starting from three general axioms we derived a rich structure which includes and generalizes several classes of multipartite entangled state, like graph/stabilizer states, Gaussian cluster states, quantum random networks and projected entangled pair states (PEPS). Due to its flexibility we can extend the present formalism to include directed and weighted graphs.
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