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Effect of different mulching materials on weed dynamics and yield of direct seeded rice in Chitwan, Nepal
R Gaire, KR Dahal, LP Amgain
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v3i0.9008
Abstract: An experiment was carried out at farmers' field to compare the effects of live mulches and herbicide on weed growth and dynamics, yield, and economic performance of direct seeded rice under humid sub-tropical condition at Phulbari, Chitwan in 2009. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design with eight treatments and three replications. The treatments consisted of i) control, ii) three hand weeding, iii) herbicide application (bispyribac sodium @ 80 ml/ha) + one hand weeding, iv) wheat straw mulch @ 5t/ha + one hand weeding, v) Eupatorium mulch @ 5t/ha + one hand weeding, vi) brown manuring with Sesbania aculeata @ 30 kg/ha, vii) brown manuring with Sesamum indicum @ 2kg/ha, and viii) brown manuring with Crotolaria juncea @ 30 kg/ha. Weed dry matter accumulation was significantly lower with herbicide application (1.15 g/m2) than wheat straw mulch (6.75 g/m2). The treatments with brown manuring and Eupatorium mulch were found to be equally effective in suppressing the weed growth by reducing both dry matter content and weed density. Application of Eupatorium mulch one day after sowing produced significantly higher grain yield (3.5 t/ha) than control (1.77 t/ha), Sesamum brown manuring (2.97 t/ha) and wheat straw mulch (2.83 t/ha). Yield attributes like effective tillers/m2, panicle length and panicle weight were positively correlated with grain yield (r = 0.540, 0.705, 0.531 and 0.613 respectively). The net profit (Rs. 63.17 x 1000/ha) obtained from the treatment with Eupatorium mulch was higher than other tested treatments. Eupatorium mulch and herbicide application recorded equal benefit cost ratio of 2.4. Cultivation of direct seeded rice with the application of Eupatorium mulch or brown manuring (BM) of Sesamum was found effective for increasing yield and net returns in humid subtropical condition of Chitwan. Live mulching could be an eco-friendly weed control options in DSR. The BM option also provides crop residue for the addition of organic matter. This result suggests that BM is a potential alternative of herbicide application. Either mulching with Eupatorium and wheat straw or growing of Sesbania and Crotolaria as BM with rice up to 30 DAS are advisable to increase productivity with reduced cost of production at Chitwan and similar condition.
Insurance Industry and Non-Agriculture Sector of Nepal: An Empirical Study
Hom Nath Gaire
Banking Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/bj.v3i1.7510
Abstract: In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyse relationship between Nepalese insurance industry and the non-agriculture sector using the annual data of the period of 1997 to 2010. In order to accomplish this goal, unit root test, co-integration test, granger causality test, and ordinary least square method of regression analysis have been performed. The empirical result from the co-integration tests clearly shows that there is a long-run relationship between total premium collection and Resources/Liabilities of Nepalese insurance industry vis-á-vis non-agriculture real GDP. Likewise, the null hypotheses that the total premium collection and Resource/Liabilities does not granger cause non-agriculture and real GDP of Nepal and was rejected. Moreover, estimated coefficients of regression models also indicate that there is strong positive correlation between the insurance industry and non-agriculture sector of Nepal.
Real Interest Rate and Saving Behavior in Nepal
Hom Nath Gaire
Banking Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/bj.v2i1.5703
Abstract: Keywords: Real Interest Rate; Bank Deposit; Gross Domestic Saving; Expected Inflation DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/bj.v2i1.5703 Banking Journal 2012; 2(1): 16-34
A review on the pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Datura stramonium L.
Bhakta Prasad Gaire,Lalita Subedi
Journal of Integrative Medicine (JIM) , 2013,
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Datura stramonium L., a wild-growing plant of the Solanaceae family, is widely distributed and easily accessible. It contains a variety of toxic tropane alkaloids such as atropine, hyoscamine, and scopolamine. In Eastern medicine, especially in Ayurvedic medicine, D. stramonium has been used for curing various human ailments, including ulcers, wounds, inflammation, rheumatism and gout, sciatica, bruises and swellings, fever, asthma and bronchitis, and toothache. A few previous studies have reported on the pharmacological effects of D. stramonium; however, complete information regarding the pharmacology, toxicity, ethnobotany and phytochemistry remains unclear. Ethnomedicinally, the frequent recreational abuse of D. stramonium has resulted in toxic syndromes. D. stramonium, in the form of paste or solution to relieve the local pain, may not have a deleterious effect; however, oral and systemic administration may lead to severe anticholinergic symptoms. For this reason, it is very important for individuals, mainly young people, to be aware of the toxic nature and potential risks associated with the use of this plant. This comprehensive review of D. stramonium includes information on botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and ethnomedicinal uses.
Development of automated brightfield double In Situ hybridization (BDISH) application for HER2 gene and chromosome 17 centromere (CEN 17) for breast carcinomas and an assay performance comparison to manual dual color HER2 fluorescence In Situ hybridization (FISH)
Hiroaki Nitta, Beatrice Hauss-Wegrzyniak, Megan Lehrkamp, Adrian E Murillo, Fabien Gaire, Michael Farrell, Eric Walk, Frederique Penault-Llorca, Masafumi Kurosumi, Manfred Dietel, Lin Wang, Margaret Loftus, James Pettay, Raymond R Tubbs, Thomas M Grogan
Diagnostic Pathology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-3-41
Abstract: The BDISH assay was developed with the nick translated dinitrophenyl (DNP)-labeled HER2 DNA probe and DNP-labeled CEN 17 oligoprobe on the Ventana BenchMark? XT slide processing system. Detection of HER2 and CEN 17 signals was accomplished with the silver acetate, hydroquinone, and H2O2 reaction with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the fast red and naphthol phosphate reaction with alkaline phosphatise (AP), respectively. The BDISH specificity was optimized with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded xenograft tumors, MCF7 (non-amplified HER2 gene) and BT-474 (amplified HER2 gene). Then, the BDISH performance was evaluated with 94 routinely processed breast cancer tissues. Interpretation of HER2 and CEN 17 BDISH slides was conducted by 4 observers using a conventional brightfield microscope without oil immersion objectives.Sequential hybridization and signal detection for HER2 and CEN 17 ISH demonstrated both DNA targets in the same cells. HER2 signals were visualized as discrete black metallic silver dots while CEN 17 signals were detected as slightly larger red dots. Our study demonstrated a high consensus concordance between HER2 FISH and BDISH results of clinical breast carcinoma cases based on the historical scoring method (98.9%, Simple Kappa = 0.9736, 95% CI = 0.9222 – 1.0000) and the ASCO/CAP scoring method with the FISH equivocal cases (95.7%, Simple Kappa = 0.8993%, 95% CI = 0.8068 – 0.9919) and without the FISH equivocal cases (100%, Simple Kappa = 1.0000%, 95% CI = 1.0000 – 1.0000).Automated BDISH applications for HER2 and CEN 17 targets were successfully developed and it might be able to replace manual two-color HER2 FISH methods. The application also has the potential to be used for other gene targets. The use of BDISH technology allows the simultaneous analyses of two DNA targets within the context of tissue morphological observation.The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) oncogene, located on the long arm of chromosome 17 (17q12-q21), is over-
Discovery and analysis of consistent active sub-networks in cancers
Gaire Raj K,Smith Lorey,Humbert Patrick,Bailey James
BMC Bioinformatics , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-14-s2-s7
Abstract: Gene expression profiles can show significant changes when genetically diseased cells are compared with non-diseased cells. Biological networks are often used to identify active subnetworks (ASNs) of the diseases from the expression profiles to understand the reason behind the observed changes. Current methodologies for discovering ASNs mostly use undirected PPI networks and node centric approaches. This can limit their ability to find the meaningful ASNs when using integrated networks having comprehensive information than the traditional protein-protein interaction networks. Using appropriate scoring functions to assess both genes and their interactions may allow the discovery of better ASNs. In this paper, we present CASNet, which aims to identify better ASNs using (i) integrated interaction networks (mixed graphs), (ii) directions of regulations of genes, and (iii) combined node and edge scores. We simplify and extend previous methodologies to incorporate edge evaluations and lessen their sensitivity to significance thresholds. We formulate our objective functions using mixed integer programming (MIP) and show that optimal solutions may be obtained. We compare the ASNs obtained by CASNet and similar other approaches to show that CASNet can often discover more meaningful and stable regulatory ASNs. Our analysis of a breast cancer dataset finds that the positive feedback loops across 7 genes, AR, ESR1, MYC, E2F2, PGR, BCL2 and CCND1 are conserved across the basal/triple negative subtypes in multiple datasets that could potentially explain the aggressive nature of this cancer subtype. Furthermore, comparison of the basal subtype of breast cancer and the mesenchymal subtype of glioblastoma ASNs shows that an ASN in the vicinity of IL6 is conserved across the two subtypes. This result suggests that subtypes of different cancers can show molecular similarities indicating that the therapeutic approaches in different types of cancers may be shared.
Resistive and reactive changes to the impedance of intracortical microelectrodes can be mitigated with polyethylene glycol under acute in vitro and in vivo settings
Salah Sommakia,Janak Gaire,Jenna L. Rickus,Kevin J. Otto
Frontiers in Neuroengineering , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fneng.2014.00033
Abstract: The reactive response of brain tissue to implantable intracortical microelectrodes is thought to negatively affect their recordable signal quality and impedance, resulting in unreliable longitudinal performance. The relationship between the progression of the reactive tissue into a glial scar and the decline in device performance is unclear. We show that exposure to a model protein solution in vitro and acute implantation result in both resistive and capacitive changes to electrode impedance, rather than purely resistive changes. We also show that applying 4000 MW polyethylene glycol (PEG) prevents impedance increases in vitro, and reduces the percent change in impedance in vivo following implantation. Our results highlight the importance of considering the contributions of non-cellular components to the decline in neural microelectrode performance, and present a proof of concept for using a simple dip-coated PEG film to modulate changes in microelectrode impedance.
Peoples’ Perception and Conservation of Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soó in Manaslu Conservation Area, Central Nepal  [PDF]
Bikram Pandey, Arbindra Timilsina, Binita Pandey, Chhabi Lal Thapa, Kamal Bahadur Nepali, Pradeep Neupane, Resham Thapa, Sunil Kumar Gaire, Mohan Siwakoti
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.712157
Abstract:

The present study analyzes the information and perception of the local community of Samagaun VDC, Manaslu Conservation Area Project (MCAP) regarding Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soó (Orchidaceae). We assessed the local peoples’ perception on its population status, its availability, factors causing its decline and management practices of this terrestrial orchids. A pre-designed questionnaire was used to gather information targeting the age group between 25 and 60 years (n = 75, 45 male and 30 female). Most of the informants (76%) believe that the abundance of this orchid is declining. Over grazing of domestic animals, over harvesting and lack of awareness among the local community were determined to be the major causes of decline of D. hatagirea in the study area. Protection measures as prescribed by the informants were control grazing, raising awareness among the individuals and sustainable harvestings for the long-term conservation of the species. Systematic management plans that incorporate the participation of local individuals and prioritization of their views will be applicable for the proper conservation of the species.

Estimating Fuelwood Demand and Supply for Forest User Groups from Community Forests
Suman Aryal,Govinda Raj Pokharel,Narayan Prasad Kafle,Narayan Prasad Gaire
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2948
Abstract: Main objectives of this study were to estimate annual fuelwood demand in Community Forest Users Group (CFUG), and annual sustainable supply of the same from Community Forest (CF). Study was done each one community forest of Terai and Hills; Shanti Community Forest (SCF), Saljhandi, Rupandehi (Terai) and Barangdikol Community Forest (BCF), Madanpokhara, Palpa (Hill), in Western Development region, Nepal. Extensive field work was carried out from May to July, 2007. Sustainable supply of fuelwood from the CF was estimated by using the methodology mentioned in the "Revised guidelines for community forest resource inventory", MoFSC, 2004. Stratified random sampling with proportional allocation method in three households (HHs) type; HHs with biogas, HHs with ICS and HHs without biogas & ICS, was used to cover 15 % of the HHs in the CFUG during HHs survey for the estimation of fuelwood demand. The fuelwood consumption pattern in these three HHs types was compared. The result showed that SCF was found in good condition where as BCF was in poor condition based on regeneration rate and growing stock. Demand and supply analysis showed that only 12.03% of fuelwood demand in SCFUG and 8.03% of the fuelwood demand in the BCFUG was fulfilled by the sustainable supply of fuelwood from the CF. Key-words: Biogas; Consumption; Energy; Improved cooking stove; Growing stock DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2948 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable{mso-style-name:"Table Normal";mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0;mso-tstyle-colband-size:0;mso-style-noshow:yes;mso-style-parent:"";mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;mso-para-margin:0in;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination:widow-orphan;font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:#0400;mso-fareast-language:#0400;mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 10, 2009 Page:129-133
Resource Usage Estimation of Data Stream Processing Workloads in Datacenter Clouds
Alireza Khoshkbarforoushha,Rajiv Ranjan,Raj Gaire,Prem P. Jayaraman,John Hosking,Ehsan Abbasnejad
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Real-time computation of data streams over affordable virtualized infrastructure resources is an important form of data in motion processing architecture. However, processing such data streams while ensuring strict guarantees on quality of services is problematic due to: (i) uncertain stream arrival pattern; (ii) need of processing different types of continuous queries; and (iii) variable resource consumption behavior of continuous queries. Recent work has explored the use of statistical techniques for resource estimation of SQL queries and OLTP workloads. All these techniques approximate resource usage for each query as a single point value. However, in data stream processing workloads in which data flows through the graph of operators endlessly and poses performance and resource demand fluctuations, the single point resource estimation is inadequate. Because it is neither expressive enough nor does it capture the multi-modal nature of the target data. To this end, we present a novel technique which uses mixture density networks, a combined structure of neural networks and mixture models, to estimate the whole spectrum of resource usage as probability density functions. The proposed approach is a flexible and convenient means of modeling unknown distribution models. We have validated the models using both the linear road benchmark and the TPC-H, observing high accuracy under a number of error metrics: mean-square error, continuous ranked probability score, and negative log predictive density.
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