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Community Perspectives on the On-Farm Diversity of Six Major Cereals and Climate Change in Bhutan
Tirtha Bdr. Katwal,Singay Dorji,Rinchen Dorji,Lhab Tshering,Mahesh Ghimiray,Ganesh B. Chhetri,Tashi Yangzome Dorji,Asta Maya Tamang
Agriculture , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture5010002
Abstract: Subsistence Bhutanese farmers spread across different agro-ecological zones maintain large species and varietal diversity of different crops in their farm. However, no studies have been undertaken yet to assess why farmers conserve and maintain large agro-biodiversity, the extent of agro-ecological richness, species richness, estimated loss of traditional varieties and threats to the loss of on-farm agro-biodiversity. Information on the number of varieties cultivated by the farmers for six important staple crops were collected from nine districts and twenty sub-districts spread across six different agro-ecological zones of the country to understand farmers reasons for maintaining on-farm crop diversity, estimate agro-ecological richness, species richness and the overall loss of traditional varieties, to know the famers’ level of awareness on climate change and the different threats to crop diversity. The results from this study indicated that an overwhelming 93% of the respondents manage and use agro-biodiversity for household food security and livelihood. The average agro-ecological richness ranged from 1.17 to 2.26 while the average species richness ranged from 0.50 to 2.66. The average agro-ecological richness indicates a large agro-ecological heterogeneity in terms of the different species of staple crops cultivated. The average species richness on the other hand shows that agro-ecological heterogeneity determines the type and extent of the cultivation of the six different staple cereals under consideration. The overall loss of traditional varieties in a time period of 20 years stands at 28.57%. On climate change, 94% of the farmers recognize that local climate is changing while 86% responded that they are aware of the potential impacts of climate change on their livelihoods. Climate change and associated factors was considered the most imminent threat to the management and loss of on-farm agro-biodiversity. The results from this study indicate that on-farm agro-biodiversity conservation, development and utilization programs have to be more specific to the different agro-ecological zones considering the agro-ecological heterogeneity. Attention has to be given to individual crops that have low average species richness and high percentage of loss of traditional varieties. The impact of climate change could offset the traditional seed system which primarily supports the persistence of on-farm agro-biodiversity in several ways.
Youth unemployment in Bhutan
Tashi Dorji
Sherub Doeme : The Research Journal of Sherubtse College , 2012,
Abstract: The paper attempts to study demographic and socio-economic characteristics associated with unemployed youth in Bhutan using Population and Housing Census of Bhutan, 2005. The study employed univariate and bivariate analysis techniques to achieve the objectives of the study. The study demonstrate that single female youth with university schooling residing in urban areas are more likely to be unemployed compared to their counterparts. The youth in western region is most disadvantaged in labour market compared to eastern and central region which have almost same unemployment rate. The study provides impetus for policy makers and recommend further in-depth analysis of unemployment among youths.
Tobacco Act awareness in Kanglung community
Dorji S
Sherub Doeme : The Research Journal of Sherubtse College , 2012,
Abstract: Bhutan Tobacco Act and its subsequent implementation triggered debates and many are in complete bewilderment over severity of punishment meted to the accused. While debates go on, this small pilot study of community around Sherubtse College is conducted to find out how aware the people are of the Tobacco Act which was recently legislated. The paper will not analyze the policy documents and stakeholders actions. It will neither contradict nor interpret the Act. This paper will make an attempt to find the community’s awareness level and their views on the Act in general.
Nutritional status of students: An anthropometric comparison between Kanglung Higher Secondary School and Rongthung Primary School.
Tshewang Dorji
Sherub Doeme : The Research Journal of Sherubtse College , 2013,
Abstract: The nutritional status of the students of two different schools viz Kanglung Higher Secondary School (KHSS) and Rongthung Primary School (RPS) was analyzed through anthropometry. A total of 302 students selected randomly were subjected to anthropometry. The nutritional status was evaluated based on the prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting using z-scores of weight for age, height for age, weight for height and BMI for age. The prevalence of underweight was 26.00% whereas the prevalence of overweight and obesity was negligible. The prevalence of stunting among KHSS and RPS students was found to be 26.73% and 23.47% respectively. Only 2.6% of RPS students showed wasting. In both the schools, male adolescents showed higher prevalence of stunting as well as underweight. An attempt has been made to correlate the anthropometric findings with the dietary habits and sanitation in the community.
The concept of community forest management(CFM) at Kanglung Gewog in Trashigang Dzongkhag, Bhutan
Tshelthrim Dorji
Sherub Doeme : The Research Journal of Sherubtse College , 2013,
Abstract: The concept of Community Forest Management (CFM) in Bhutan has out-looked and came to its existence in 2000 whereby its implementations were rapid after 2007. Over the years, since the nationalization of forests in 1969, Bhutanese policy-makers and foresters had realized that the participation of local communities (rural people) would be the icon to the conservation and sustainable management of forest resources. Although, CFM was mainly established and promoted in order to ensure forest protection, yet it is today, considered as a means to improve rural livelihoods and contribute to poverty reduction, which is the primary goal and objective of the government. The concept of CFM is not very old and it is still new to Bhutanese especially to the far-flung village people. The establishment of CFM in the localities (Gewog wise/village wise) has made the Bhutanese a unique opportunity to learn from the successes and difficulties that their neighbors have experienced and to create an approach most appropriate to the local context. Therefore, this paper shows the decentralization of forestry extension to the district and the Gewog level and it gives the information about the stepwise development of a legal frame work for CFM in Lumang Gewog. Moreover, it discusses the scope and its challenges associated with CFM in the Gewog. The CFM program will increasingly explore opportunities to generate economic and social benefits from active resource management in the CFM area whereby there will be improvement in people's living standard and result to poverty reduction in the country.
A Historical Background of the Chhoetse Penlop
Dorji Wangdi
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 2004,
Abstract:
Oral Construction of Exile Life and Times of Kunkhyen Longchen Rabjam in Bumthang
Dorji Penjore
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 2005,
Abstract:
The Historical Anecdote of Kheng Nobilities
Lham Dorji
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 2005,
Abstract:
SUSTAINABILITY OF TOURISM IN BHUTAN
Tandin Dorji
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 2001,
Abstract: Bhutan's tourism industry began in 1974. It was introduced with theprimary objective of generating revenue, especially foreign exchange;publicising the country's unique culture and traditions to the outside world, and to contribute to the country's socio-economic development1. Since then the number of tourists visiting Bhutan has increased from just 287 in 1974 to over 2,850 in 1992 and over 7,000 in 1999.By the late 1980's tourism contributed over US$2 million in revenues to the royal government. In 1989, the royal government raised the tourist tariff. That year only 1,480 tourists visited Bhutan but the government still earned US$1.95 million through tourism. By 1992 tourist revenues contributed as much as US$3.3 million and accounted for as much as 15-20% of the total of Bhutan's exported goods and services.The royal government has always been aware that an unrestricted flow of tourists can have negative impacts on Bhutan's pristine environment and its rich and unique culture. The government, therefore, adopted a policy of "high value-low volume" tourism, controlling the type and quantity of tourism right from the start. Until 1991 the Bhutan Tourism Corporation (BTC), a quasi-autonomous and self-financing body, implemented the government's tourism policy. All tourists, up to that time came as guests of BTC, which in turn operated the tour organisation, transport services and nearly all the hotels and accommodation facilities. The government privatised tourism in October 1991 to encourage increased private sector participation in the tourism sector. Today there are more than 75 licensed tour operators in the country.
Religious Life and History of the Emanated Heart-son Thukse Dawa Gyeltshen
Lham Dorji
Journal of Bhutan Studies , 2005,
Abstract:
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