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Secado de Forraje con el Horno Microondas: Efecto Sobre el Analisis de Calidad
Crespo,Roberto J; Castao,Jorge A; Capurro,José A;
Agricultura Técnica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072007000200013
Abstract: the objectives were to utilize a microwave oven (hm) to determine dry matter (ms) and evaluate its effect on dry matter (ms), organic matter content (mo), in vitro organic matter digestibility (divmo), brute protein (pb), acid detergent fiber (fda), and acid-detergent insoluble nitrogen (nida). we utilized the forage species: medicago sativa l., trifolium repens l., trifolium pratense l. and thinopyrum ponticum barkw. & d.r. dewey, and mixtures of: m. sativa-dactylis glomerata l., festuca arundinacea schreb.-t. repens-d. glomerata, and lolium perenne l.-t. repens. the experimental design was a factorial complete randomized block. we compared drying time (ts) and quality parameters on stove method (t1), hm at 900 w (t2), and hm at 900 and 400 w (t3), by andeva and duncan test (p ≤ 0,05). in t2 and t3, ts ranged from 6 to 8 min (t. pratense and th. ponticum, respectively), compared to 48 h for t1. the ms value did not show differences between treatments for m. sativa, t. pratense, m. sativa-d. glomerata, and l. perenne-t. repens, but there were differences for the other forages between t2 or t3 with t1, which could be explained by the forages phenological stage. differences between treatments were found for fda (t. repens), divmo and pb (th. ponticum), and pb and mo (l. perenne-t. repens). the use of the microwave oven allows a quick and consistent ms determination, along with a reliable forage quality standard evaluation.
Secado de Forraje con el Horno Microondas: Efecto Sobre el Analisis de Calidad Microwave Oven Forage Drying: Effects on Quality Analysis
Roberto J Crespo,Jorge A Castao,José A Capurro
Agricultura Técnica , 2007,
Abstract: Los objetivos de este experimento fueron utilizar el horno microondas (HM) para determinar materia seca (MS) y evaluar su efecto sobre el valor de materia orgánica (MO), digestibilidad in vitro de la MO (DIVMO), proteína bruta (PB), fibra detergente ácido (FDA) y nitrógeno insoluble en detergente ácido (NIDA). Se utilizaron forrajes puros: Medicago sativa L., Trifolium repens L., Trifolium pratense L. y Thinopyrum ponticum Barkw. & Dewey, y en mezclas: M. sativa-Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb.-T. repens-D. glomerata, y Lolium perenne L.-T. repens. El dise o experimental usado fue bloques completamente aleatorizados con arreglo factorial de tratamientos. Se comparó el tiempo de secado (Ts) y los parámetros de calidad entre: Estufa (T1), HM a 900 W (T2), y HM a 900 y 400 W (T3), mediante ANDEVA y Test de Duncan (p ≤ 0,05). Para T2 y T3, Ts varió entre 6 a 8 min (T. pratense y Th. ponticum respectivamente), siendo en T1, 48 h. La MS no difirió entre tratamientos para M. sativa, T. pratense, M. sativa-D. glomerata y L. perenne-T. repens, pero si en el resto de los forrajes entre T2 ó T3 con T1; esto se podría asociar al estado fenológico del material forrajero al momento del corte. Respecto a los parámetros de calidad evaluados se observaron diferencias en FDA en T. repens, DIVMO y PB en Th. ponticum, y PB y MO en L. perenne-T. repens. El uso del HM permite obtener rápida y confiablemente la MS del forraje sin modificar sustancialmente sus parámetros de calidad The objectives were to utilize a microwave oven (HM) to determine dry matter (MS) and evaluate its effect on dry matter (MS), organic matter content (MO), in vitro organic matter digestibility (DIVMO), brute protein (PB), acid detergent fiber (FDA), and acid-detergent insoluble nitrogen (NIDA). We utilized the forage species: Medicago sativa L., Trifolium repens L., Trifolium pratense L. and Thinopyrum ponticum Barkw. & D.R. Dewey, and mixtures of: M. sativa-Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb.-T. repens-D. glomerata, and Lolium perenne L.-T. repens. The experimental design was a factorial complete randomized block. We compared drying time (Ts) and quality parameters on stove method (T1), HM at 900 W (T2), and HM at 900 and 400 W (T3), by ANDEVA and Duncan Test (p ≤ 0,05). In T2 and T3, Ts ranged from 6 to 8 min (T. pratense and Th. ponticum, respectively), compared to 48 h for T1. The MS value did not show differences between treatments for M. sativa, T. pratense, M. sativa-D. glomerata, and L. perenne-T. repens, but there were differences for the other forages betwe
NUTRICIóN PARENTERAL EN PEQUE?OS ANIMALES Revisión de algunos aspectos importantes
ávila,J. A; Castao,D. A;
Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia , 2012,
Abstract: the adequate and timely nutritional support helps to reduce the risk of infections and improves the immune function and the patient's prognosis; that's why the importance of keeping an adequate nutritional state in critically ill patients is often emphasized. with that aim, this paper highlights the value of parenteral nutrition and its role in those animals with a present or anticipated malnutrition, as long as the enteral route is not available or insufficient because of metabolism problems that predispose to an increased muscular catabolism. a proper preparation of a nutritional plan should take into account issues of great importance, such as the whole assessment of the historical findings -clinical and paraclinical- in order to detect the degree or the risk of malnutrition. the selection of the most appropriate nutrition type and the solution type to be used are equally important since they vary on every case depending on the condition, the patient's current situation and its associated pathologies. thus, the calculation of the energy requirements and the way they will be supplemented are variables that must be handled with caution in order to avoid exceeding the metabolic capacity and trigger complications that increase morbidity and mortality. finally, it is equally important to highlight that parenteral nutrition should be discontinued as soon as possible to reduce problems associated with it, like gastrointestinal atrophy.
La funcionalidad de los óxidos de hierro
Castao, J. G.,Arroyave, C.
Revista de Metalurgia , 1998,
Abstract: Some iron oxides have a great scientific and technological possibilities, not only for their importance in the present, but also for their great potential in the development of the future technologies. They have adequate properties to carry out several functions. They are plentiful in the nature and their synthetic obtention is not complex. This paper shows five of them (hematite, magnetite, maghemite, goethite and akaganeite) and their utilization in fields like chemical industry, biotechnology, medicine, new materials and electromagnetism. Algunos óxidos de hierro tienen aplicaciones interesantes para las tecnologías actuales y futuras. Aparte de poseer propiedades adecuadas para cumplir diversas funciones, son relativamente abundantes en la naturaleza o su obtención en forma sintética no es complicada. En este artículo se presentan cinco de ellos (hematita, magnetita, maghemita, goethita y akaganeíta) y su utilización en campos como la industria química, la biotecnología, la medicina, los nuevos materiales y el electromagnetismo.
Culturability and Viability of Salmonella Typhimurium during Photo-Fenton Process at pH 5.5 under Solar Simulated Irradiation  [PDF]
Julián A. Rengifo-Herrera, Olga L. Castao, Irma J. Sanabria
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.58A003
Abstract:

Culturability and viability techniques such as plate count on solid agar (PC), Most Probable Number (MPN) and Direct Viable Count-Fluorescence in Situ Hybridation (DVC FISH) were used to study the inactivation of Salmonella typhimurium by photo-Fenton process at pH 5.5. In the presence of only simulated solar irradiation (500 W·m-2), S. typhimurim showed that both culturability measured by MPN and viability (measured by DVC FISH) underwent just a slight decreasing of 2 and 1 log respectively after 240 min of light exposition while culturability measured by PC did not show any change. Results after 48 h of dark conditions did not reveal re-growth. However, when experiment was carried out in the presence of 2 mg L-1 of Fe3+ and 20 mg L-1 of H2O2 and pH 5.5, culturability was strongly affected after 240 min of simulated solar irradiation; nevertheless, viability was only slightly altered (~1 log). During dark period of 48 h changes on culturability and viability were not observed. On the other hand, it was also found that sugar metabolism was affected rather the amino-acids in S. typhimurium cells irradiated at different times upon photo-Fenton conditions. These findings might suggest for the first time that photo-Fenton process at pH 5.5 could induce viable but nonculturable state (VBNC) on waterborne S. typhimurium and that probably sugar metabolism damage could activate the VBNC state.

Estudio geológico-estructural de las mineralizaciones de arsenopirita de Viandar de la Vera (Sierra de Gredos. Cáceres)
Fernández Rodríguez, C.,Castao Castao, S.,Luque del Villar, F. J.
Estudios Geologicos , 1987, DOI: 10.3989/egeol.87435-6611
Abstract: A structural and mineralogical study of a group of arsenopyrite-bearing hydrothermal dikes located in the central area of the Sierra de Gredos has been carried out. These mineralizations indicate a dominance of the high-temperature associations (arsenopyrite, pyrite and pyrrhotite) over the lower temperature ones. Four deformational stages evolving from mainly ductile to brittle regimes have been identified. A single phase of progressive deformation generated structures progressively smaller in size, with an E-W-oriented/horizontal maximum finite shortening axis. This study emphasizes the relationships between deformative processes and mineralization evolution in the sense that this evolution appears to be strongly inf!uenced by the size and character of the tectonic structures. Se ha realizado un estudio geológico-estructural y mineralógico de un grupo de diques hidrotermales con arsenopirita, localizados en el sector central de la Sierra de Gredos. Dichas mineralizaciones muestran un mayor desarrollo de las asociaciones de alta temperatura (arsenopirita, pirita y pirrotina) sobre las de temperatura intermedia y baja. Estructuralmente. es posible diferenciar cuatro etapas deformativas que evolucionan desde comportamientos predominantemente dúctiles a marcadamente frágiles. Las estructuras generadas en estas etapas son de escala sucesivamente menor y corresponden a una misma fase de deformación progresiva, cuyo eje de máximo acortamiento finito es horizontal y de dirección E-W. Sobre la base de los datos obtenidos se han establecido las relaciones existentes entre los procesos deformativos y el desarrollo de la mineralización, que se ve condicionado por la naturaleza y escalas de las estructuras tectónicas resultantes.
Corrosion and protection of metals in the rural atmosphere of "El Pardo" Spain (PATINA / CYTED project)
Simancas, J.,Castao, J. G.,Morcillo, M.
Revista de Metalurgia , 2003,
Abstract: Atmospheric corrosion tests of metallic and organic coatings on steel, zinc and aluminium have been conducted in "El Pardo" (Spain) as part of the PATINA/CYTED project "Anticorrosive Protection of Metals in the Atmosphere". This is a rural atmosphere with the following ISO corrosivity categories: C2 (Fe), C2 (Zn), C3 (Cu) and Cl (Al). Its average temperature and relative humidity is 13 °C and 62.8 %, respectively, and it has low SO2 and Cl- contents. Results of 42 months exposure are discussed. Atmospheric exposure tests were carried out for the following types of coatings: conventional paint coatings for steel and hot-dip galvanized steel (group 1), new painting technologies for steel and galvanized steel (group 2), zinc-base metallic coatings (group 3), aluminium-base metallic coatings (group 4), coatings on aluminium (group 5) and coil-coatings on steel, hot-dip galvanized steel and 55 % Al-Zn coated steel (group 6). Como parte del proyecto PATINA/CYTED "Protección anticorrosiva de metales en la atmósfera" se han llevado a cabo en la estación de ensayo de "El Pardo" (Espa a), ensayos de corrosión atmosférica de recubrimientos metálicos y orgánicos sobre acero, zinc y aluminio. Se trata de una atmósfera rural según la clasificación ISO de grado de corrosividad: C2 (Fe), C2 (Zn), C3 (Cu) y Cl (Al). La temperatura y humedad relativa media es de 13 °C y 62,8 %, respectivamente, y tiene bajos contenidos de SO2 y Cl-. Se discuten los resultados obtenidos después de 42 meses de exposición. Los ensayos de corrosión atmosférica se llevaron a cabo para tres tipos de recubrimientos: recubrimientos de pintura convencional sobre acero y acero zincado (grupo 1), nuevas tecnologías en pinturas para acero y acero galvanizado (grupo 2), recubrimientos metálicos base zinc (grupo 3), recubrimientos metálicos base aluminio (grupo 4), recubrimientos sobre aluminio (grupo 5) y recubrimientos de banda en continuo sobre acero, acero galvanizado y acero recubierto con 55 % Al-Zn (grupo 6).
DETERMINACIóN DEL CATABOLISMO DE LOS ANTICUERPOS MATERNOS Y SU INTERACCIóN CON DIFERENTES PLANES VACUNALES PARA LA ENFERMEDAD DE GUMBORO EN POLLOS DE ENGORDE
Casta?eda R.,Robin O. J.,Morales H. J.
Revista de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia , 2006,
Abstract: Con el in de evaluar el catabolismo de los anticuerpos maternos y su interferencia con tres planes vacunales diferentes contra la enfermedad de Gumboro se realizó un estudio utilizando pollos de la estirpe Ross 308, divididos en cuatro grupos: grupo 1: control (sin vacuna); grupo 2: vacunado los días 1, 7 y 15; grupo 3: vacunados los días 1 y 12; y grupo 4: vacunado el día 12. En el primer experimento el biológico se suministró en el agua de bebida, y en el segundo se hizo en el pico. Se sacriicaron 15 aves de cada grupo a los 1, 12, 21 y 42 días de edad y se evaluó peso corporal, tama o y peso de la bolsa de Fabricio, relación peso bolsa/peso corporal (PB/PC), grado de depleción linfoide, presencia de cepas estándar y/o variantes del virus y los títulos de anticuerpos para la enfermedad de Gumboro. El catabolismo de los anticuerpos maternos ocurrió entre los 21 y 28 días de edad. En los grupos vacunados no se evidenció una respuesta inmune activa frente a ningún plan vacunal. La relación PB/PC no indicó atroia de la bolsa en el experimento 1, aunque las lesiones histopatológicas en el último muestreo fueron grado 3; en el segundo experimento solamente el grupo 3 presentó una disminución en la relación PB/PC; las lesiones histopatológicas en el tercer y cuarto muestreos, en todos los grupos, fueron clasiicadas como grado 3 y 4. En los dos experimentos se detectó la presencia de cepas tanto clásicas como variantes y una baja respuesta humoral. Ninguno de los tres planes vacunales conirió adecuada protección a las aves.
Impact of emtricitabine/tenofovir (FTC/TDF) on renal function in antiretroviral-na ve patients≥50 years - TRIP study
J Blanco,M Castao,J Olalla,P Domingo
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2012, DOI: 10.7448/ias.15.6.18312
Abstract: Purpose In the last decade the prevalence of HIV-infected patients≥50 years of age has increased. FTC/TDF is nowadays one of the cornerstones of cART in na ve patients, generally considered safe and well tolerated; nevertheless there is a continuous debate about the renal safety of TDF, due to the report of cases linking this treatment with renal failure and tubular dysfunction. In addition, there is a well-recognized age-related decline in renal function. Our aim was to describe the impact of cART regimen (FTC/TDF vs. others) on renal function of subjects who start cART at≥50 years old. Methods National, retrospective cohort analysis of HIV-infected patients>50 y at the time they began the first cART (Jan 1, 2006 – Dec 31, 2009). Patients were selected in a proportion 2:1 to FTC/TDF versus other NRTI regimens (no TDF). For this analysis we excluded subjects taking potentially nephrotoxic drugs at baseline. We compared the impact of FTC/TDF vs. no-TDF regimens (main groups) on renal function by means of the changes, during the first 12 months of treatment, in glomerular filtration rate estimated by the CKD-EPI formula, and by the analysis of time to renal deterioration during the complete follow up (defined as progression to an EPI-CKD value<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in subjects with baseline values>60). We also compared these outcomes among FTC/TDF users, according to the third agent: PI vs. NNRTI, and lopinavir/r vs. efavirenz. Results We included 125 patients, median age: 54.8 y, 82% males, median CD4 count 235 cells/μl, median viral load 4.7 log, follow up: median 19 months, max: 66 months. Of them, 82 started with FTC/TDF and 43 with other NRTIs (no TDF). During the follow-up 13/125 patients taking FTC/TDF (11%) presented with renal deterioration. The Cox regression model including age, sex, transmission category, baseline CD4 count and viral load, FTC/TDF use, PI/NNRTI use, and LPVr/EFV use showed a hazard ratio for renal deterioration of 4.13 (95% CI 0.92, 18.5) for LPV/r users. The table shows the evolution of glomerular filtration rate, and proportion and risk of renal deterioration. Conclusion In subjects starting cART after 50 years of age, we have not found significant changes in glomerular filtration rate associated with the use of FTC/TDF-based regimens. Overall, the risk of renal deterioration was 4.1 times higher for LPV/r users (almost statistically significant). Among FTC/TDF users, this risk was 8 times higher for LPV/r as compared to EFV.
Cirugía del agujero macular con y sin liberación de la membrana limitante interna
Castro Navarro,J; González Castao,C;
Archivos de la Sociedad Espa?ola de Oftalmología , 2003, DOI: 10.4321/S0365-66912003000300007
Abstract: purpose: to determine if internal limiting membrane (ilm) peeling in idiopathic macular hole surgery improves anatomic and functional results. methods: comparative retrospective, nonrandomized study, of 50 eyes from 48 patients with macular hole, stage iii an iv of the gass classification. all of them were operated with the same technique. in 25 eyes the ilm was peeled (group 1). in the other 25 eyes the ilm was not peeled (group 2). we compare the anatomic and functional outcome as well as the complications in both groups. results: the overall anatomic success rate in the 50 eyes was 92% (46 eyes). in group 1 the anatomic success rate was 100% and 84% in group 2 (p=0.018). the visual acuity improved, one or more snellen lines, in 34 of the 50 operated eyes (68%). in group 1 the visual acuity improved in 20 of the 25 eyes (80%) and in group 2 in 14 of the 25 eyes (56%) (p=0.034). the most relevant complications included retinal detachment, two cases in group 1 and one case in group 2, cataract and retinal pigment epithelium changes. conclusions: in our experience, internal limiting membrane peeling in macular hole surgery improves the anatomic and functional success, but not the final visual acuity.
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