OALib Journal期刊

ISSN: 2333-9721




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匹配條件: “Ron I. Smith” ,找到相關結果約99128條。
“The Canadians (1961): No Singing Please.”
Ron Smith.
Nebula , 2009,
Schools as institutions for peace in Northern Ireland: pupils’, parents’ and teachers’ perspectives on the community relations dimension
Ron Smith
Educate~ , 2006,
Abstract: : The aim of the research reported in this paper is to inform the processes of school improvement for better intercommunal relations in Northern Ireland. Notwithstanding the present peace process, the quality of community relations remains a crucial concern for those interested in long-term stability. The research strategy drew on data from nine case study schools and was considered to be part of an interpretist-constructivist paradigm involving an inductive or grounded theory approach to analysis. The views of pupils, parents and teachers on the contribution of schooling towards improved inter-group relationships were explored in some depth and the wealth of rich data shed light on school practices and key institutional factors implicated in effectiveness and improvement. Nineteen themes were identified which appeared not to be discrete or self-contained but interact in complex ways creating different patterns at different organisational sites. Furthermore, the patterns spun by these factors appeared to vary in nature through relationship with identities such as geographical location, socio-economic status, ethnicity and gender. It is argued that this study contributes towards the existing literatures on school effectiveness and improvement and schooling and sectarianism in Northern Ireland. The results suggested that education for community relations in N. Ireland required an alternative concept of school effectiveness to the received model. The emerging organisational picture was more consistent with sensitivity to context models of effectiveness and improvement. The analysis in the final section was designed to offer some broad pointers for school improvement.
The Understanding of Peace among Children and Adolescents: A Critical Review of Research
Ron Smith
Educate~ , 2006,
Abstract: Contextualisation Despite the existence in Northern Ireland of an internationally endorsed Peace Process (the 1998 Good Friday or Belfast Agreement), the need for education to play its part in developing a new peace culture and peace consciousness remains as important as ever. In December 1998, the Education Minister established a working group concerned with the promotion of tolerance in schools. The report of this group recommended that there needed to be greater encouragement to regard the development of respect for diversity as a core rather than peripheral element of the school curriculum (DENI 2000). However, earlier research suggested that the received discourses and assumptions about school effectiveness and school improvement were inappropriate to meeting the challenges of improving school effectiveness for peace within a conflicted society (see, Smith 2001 a; 2001 b). This research confirmed that there was a pervasive "culture of silence" within schools with regard to open discussion on the causes and consequences of social division. There were also other silences and gaps in the story forms available to teachers within schools. When, for example, it came to having a say or being allowed to air their views on issues of relevance to school-based community relations policy and practice, the voice of students and parents were mostly silenced, disqualified or subjugated. Consequently, I decided to examine the theme of school improvement for peace from a Narrative psychology perspective. That is, from a perspective which gives a central role to the storied nature of human conduct. This stance is a special case of the wider perspective called social constructionism (Wagner and Watkins, forthcoming). A critical review of relevant extant literatures, including the developmental literature on children's and young peoples' understanding of peace, strengthened my view that new paradigm methodologies and methods were required to investigate and make sense of school improvement for peace. Abstract: McClernon (1998) suggested that some insight into children's perceptions of the meaning of peace was essential if educators in Northern Ireland (N. Ireland) were to avoid perpetuating the suspicion, bigotry and prejudice that had led to so much violence in the past. However, whilst children's understandings about peace and war had been the subject of developmental research for at least three decades, a critical review of the extant literature revealed a number of shortcomings. For example, only one study having an explicit focus on children's and adolescents' id
Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Worm Control in Lambs
Fiona Kenyon,Jan M. Dick,Ron I. Smith,Drew G. Coulter,David McBean,Philip J. Skuce
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3020271
Abstract: There are currently little or no data on the role of endemic disease control in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock. In the present study, we have used an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)-compliant model to calculate GHG emissions from naturally grazing lambs under four different anthelmintic drug treatment regimes over a 5-year study period. Treatments were either “monthly” (NST), “strategic” (SPT), “targeted” (TST) or based on “clinical signs” (MT). Commercial sheep farming practices were simulated, with lambs reaching a pre-selected target market weight (38 kg) removed from the analysis as they would no longer contribute to the GHG budget of the flock. Results showed there was a significant treatment effect over all years, with lambs in the MT group consistently taking longer to reach market weight, and an extra 10% emission of CO 2e per kg of weight gain over the other treatments. There were no significant differences between the other three treatment strategies (NST, SPT and TST) in terms of production efficiency or cumulated GHG emissions over the experimental period. This study has shown that endemic disease control can contribute to a reduction in GHG emissions from animal agriculture and help reduce the carbon footprint of livestock farming.
Incidence of brain metastasis in patients with esophageal carcinoma
Ron S Smith,Robert C Miller
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i19.2407
Abstract: AIM: To determine the incidence of brain metastasis in a contemporary group of patients with carcinoma of the esophagus. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 53 patients with esophageal carcinoma who received radiotherapy as a component of treatment between 1998 and 2007, including patient and tumor characteristics, and subsequent diagnosis of brain metastasis. The association between the histological type of esophageal cancer and the incidence of brain metastasis was assessed using Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS: Forty-four of the fifty-three patients in this study had adenocarcinoma and nine had squamous cell carcinoma, ranging from stage IIA-IVB. Primary treatment was surgery with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (trimodality therapy) in 19% of patients; chemoradiotherapy in 42%; and surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy in 7%. Twenty-five percent of patients in this study received palliative radiotherapy. The overall incidence of brain metastasis in this cohort was 13%. Adenocarcinoma was the primary tumor histology in all of the patients who developed brain metastasis, representing an incidence of 16% in this subgroup. No patients with squamous cell carcinoma received trimodality therapy. The association between histology and brain metastasis was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The incidence of brain metastasis in this contemporary cohort of patients with esophageal carcinoma is higher than previously reported and was confined to those with adenocarcinoma.
Vaccinia Virus Proteins A52 and B14 Share a Bcl-2–Like Fold but Have Evolved to Inhibit NF-κB rather than Apoptosis
Stephen C. Graham equal contributor,Mohammad W. Bahar equal contributor,Samantha Cooray equal contributor,Ron A.-J. Chen,Daniel M. Whalen,Nicola G. A. Abrescia,David Alderton,Raymond J. Owens,David I. Stuart,Geoffrey L. Smith ,Jonathan M. Grimes
PLOS Pathogens , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000128
Abstract: Vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus, encodes numerous proteins that modulate the host response to infection. Two such proteins, B14 and A52, act inside infected cells to inhibit activation of NF-κB, thereby blocking the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We have solved the crystal structures of A52 and B14 at 1.9 ? and 2.7 ? resolution, respectively. Strikingly, both these proteins adopt a Bcl-2–like fold despite sharing no significant sequence similarity with other viral or cellular Bcl-2–like proteins. Unlike cellular and viral Bcl-2–like proteins described previously, A52 and B14 lack a surface groove for binding BH3 peptides from pro-apoptotic Bcl-2–like proteins and they do not modulate apoptosis. Structure-based phylogenetic analysis of 32 cellular and viral Bcl-2–like protein structures reveals that A52 and B14 are more closely related to each other and to VACV N1 and myxoma virus M11 than they are to other viral or cellular Bcl-2–like proteins. This suggests that a progenitor poxvirus acquired a gene encoding a Bcl-2–like protein and, over the course of evolution, gene duplication events have allowed the virus to exploit this Bcl-2 scaffold for interfering with distinct host signalling pathways.
Declining incidence of malaria imported into the UK from West Africa
Ron H Behrens, Bernadette Carroll, Valerie Smith, Neal Alexander
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-235
Abstract: Using passenger numbers and malaria surveillance reports, the data revealed a 2.3-fold increase in travel to West Africa with a five-fold increase in travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR). Malaria incidence fell through the study period, the greatest decline noted in VFR with a fall from 196 cases/1,000 person-years to 52 cases/1,000 person-years, 9.8% per year p < 0.0001. The risk for travellers from the UK visiting for other reasons declined 2.7 fold, at an annual decrease of 7.0%, with the incidence in West African visitors to the UK falling by 2.3 fold, a rate of 7.9% annually.The reduction in incidence among all three groups of travellers may be explained by several factors; changing chemoprophylaxis usage and/or increased travel in urban areas where malaria risk has declined over the past decade, or widespread reduction in malaria transmission in West Africa.With the reduction in malaria incidence seen in both visitors to and from West Africa, the most rational explanation for these findings is a fall in malaria transmission in West Africa, which may require a change in chemoprophylaxis policy for UK travelers over the next 5–10 years.Malaria remains a threat to travellers visiting endemic regions. Since 1987, approximately 39,000 cases of malaria have been reported to the UK reference laboratory [1]. A number of risk factors for acquiring malaria during travel have been identified, of which destination is the most important. West Africa accounts for approximately two thirds of all cases reported in the UK, with travellers to Nigeria and Ghana making up half of all imported Plasmodium falciparum infections [2,1]. The reason for travel is another significant contributory factor and three quarters of all reported cases occur in travellers who have been visiting friends and relatives (VFR)[3,1,4] in West Africa. Failure to take or comply with the correct chemoprophylactic regimens is associated with higher rates of malaria. Unsurprisingly, only 42% of ma
Slipping friction of an optically and magnetically manipulated microsphere rolling at a glass-water interface
Rodney R. Agayan,Ron G. Smith,Raoul Kopelman
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1063/1.2976355
Abstract: The motion of submerged magnetic microspheres rolling at a glass-water interface has been studied using magnetic rotation and optical tweezers combined with bright-field microscopy particle tracking techniques. Individual microspheres of varying surface roughness were magnetically rotated both in and out of an optical trap to induce rolling, along either plain glass cover slides or glass cover slides functionalized with polyethylene glycol. It has been observed that the manipulated microspheres exhibited nonlinear dynamic rolling-while-slipping motion characterized by two motional regimes: At low rotational frequencies, the speed of microspheres free-rolling along the surface increased proportionately with magnetic rotation rate; however, a further increase in the rotation frequency beyond a certain threshold revealed a sharp transition to a motion in which the microspheres slipped with respect to the external magnetic field resulting in decreased rolling speeds. The effects of surface-microsphere interactions on the position of this threshold frequency are posed and investigated. Similar experiments with microspheres rolling while slipping in an optical trap showed congruent results.
Sublinear Algorithms for Approximating String Compressibility
Sofya Raskhodnikova,Dana Ron,Ronitt Rubinfeld,Adam Smith
Computer Science , 2007,
Abstract: We raise the question of approximating the compressibility of a string with respect to a fixed compression scheme, in sublinear time. We study this question in detail for two popular lossless compression schemes: run-length encoding (RLE) and Lempel-Ziv (LZ), and present sublinear algorithms for approximating compressibility with respect to both schemes. We also give several lower bounds that show that our algorithms for both schemes cannot be improved significantly. Our investigation of LZ yields results whose interest goes beyond the initial questions we set out to study. In particular, we prove combinatorial structural lemmas that relate the compressibility of a string with respect to Lempel-Ziv to the number of distinct short substrings contained in it. In addition, we show that approximating the compressibility with respect to LZ is related to approximating the support size of a distribution.
Rapid resolution of an acute subdural hematoma by increasing the shunt valve pressure in a 63-year-old man with normal-pressure hydrocephalus with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt: a case report and literature review
Hayes Jackson,Roguski Marie,Riesenburger Ron I
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-6-393
Abstract: Introduction Symptomatic subdural hematoma development is a constant concern for patients who have undergone cerebrospinal fluid shunting procedures to relieve symptoms related to normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Acute subdural hematomas are of particular concern in these patients as even minor head trauma may result in subdural hematoma formation. The presence of a ventricular shunt facilitates further expansion of the subdural hematoma and often necessitates surgical treatment, including subdural hematoma evacuation and shunt ligation. Case presentation We present the case of a 63-year-old North American Caucasian man with normal-pressure hydrocephalus with an adjustable valve ventriculoperitoneal shunt who developed an acute subdural hematoma after sustaining head trauma. Conservative treatment was favored over operative evacuation because our patient was neurologically intact, but simple observation was considered to be too high risk in the setting of a low-pressure ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Thus, the valve setting on the ventriculoperitoneal shunt was increased to its maximum pressure setting in order to reduce flow through the shunt and to mildly increase intracranial pressure in an attempt to tamponade any active bleeding and limit hematoma expansion. A repeat computed tomography scan of the head six days after the valve adjustment revealed complete resolution of the acute subdural hematoma. At this time, the valve pressure was reduced to its original setting to treat symptoms of normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Conclusions Programmable shunt valves afford the option for non-operative management of acute subdural hematoma in patients with ventricular shunts for normal-pressure hydrocephalus. As illustrated in this case report, increasing the shunt valve pressure may result in rapid resolution of the acute subdural hematoma in some patients.

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