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Evaluación del Riego Ambiental del Insecticida Metamidofos en Bioensayos con Cuatro Organismos Acuáticos no Destinatarios Environmental Risk Assessment of the Insecticide Metamidophos in Bioassays with Four Non-Target Aquatic Organisms
José Iannacone O,Roxana Onofre C,Olga Huanqui S,Jorge Giraldo A
Agricultura Técnica , 2007,
Abstract: El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto ecotoxicológico del metamidofos, en dos formulaciones de diferente categoría toxicológica [Monofos , categoría Ia (extremadamente peligroso) y Tamaron , categoría Ib (altamente peligroso)] sobre cuatro organismos acuáticos no destinatarios: la lombriz roja Chironomus calligraphus (Goeldi, 1905) (Diptera:Chironomidae), el erizo negro Tetrapygus niger Molina, 1782 (Echinodermata: Arbaciidae), el neón tetra Paracheirodon innesi (Rabout, 1940) (Osteichthyes: Characidae) y la trucha Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) (Osteichthyes: Salmonidae). Ambas formulaciones del metamidofos provocaron un alto riesgo sobre el ambiente acuático, al encontrarse efectos sobre las larvas de C. calligraphus (Clase Ia, CL50 a 48 h = 1,32 mg i.a. L-1 y Clase Ib, CL50 a 48 h = 4,5 mg i.a. L-1), sobre la fertilización de T. niger (Class Ia, CI50 a 1 h = 1423 mg i.a. L-1 y Clase Ib, CI50 a 1 h = 608 mg i.a. L-1), en P. innesi (Clase Ia, CL50 a 96 h = 20,56 mg i.a. L-1 y Clase Ib, CL50 a 96 h = 10,13 mg i.a. L-1) y en O. mykiss (Clase Ib, CL50 a 96 h = 19,12 mg i.a. L-1). La secuencia de sensibilidad al metamidofos en ambas formulaciones fue: C. calligraphus > O. mykiss ≈ P. innesi > T. niger. En adición, se evaluaron dos efectos subletales en P. innesi, inmovilización y nado extra o, y finalmente, incremento de movimiento opercular en O. mykiss. Los cuocientes de riesgo (CR) indicaron en todos los casos un alto riesgo del metamidofos en el ambiente acuático. The aim of this research was to evaluate the ecotoxicological effect of methamidophos using two formulations of different toxicological class [Monofos , class Ia (extremely dangerous) and Tamaron , class Ib (highly dangerous)] on four non-target aquatic organisms: bloodworm Chironomus calligraphus (Goeldi, 1905) (Diptera: Chironomidae), black sea urchin Tetrapygus niger Molina, 1782 (Echinodermata: Arbaciidae), neon tetra Paracheirodon innesi (Rabout, 1940) (Osteichthyes: Characidae); and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) (Osteichthyes: Salmonidae). Both methamidophos formulations evidenced a high risk effect on the aquatic environment, finding effects on larvae of C. calligraphus (Class Ia, LC50 at 48 h = 1.32 mg a.i. L-1 and Class Ib, LC50 at 48 h = 4.5 mg a.i. L-1), on fertilization of T. niger (Class Ia, IC50 at 1 h = 1423 mg a.i. L-1 and Class Ib, IC50 at 1 h = 608 mg a.i. L-1), on P. innesi (Class Ia, LC50 at 96 h = 20.56 mg a.i. L-1 and Class Ib, LC50 at 96 h = 10.13 mg a.i. L-1) and O. mykiss (Class Ib, LC50 at 96 h = 19.12 mg a.i. L-1). The sequence o
Evaluación del Riego Ambiental del Insecticida Metamidofos en Bioensayos con Cuatro Organismos Acuáticos no Destinatarios
Iannacone O,José; Onofre C,Roxana; Huanqui S,Olga; Giraldo A,Jorge; Mamani P,Nancy; Miglio T,Maria C; Alvari?o F,Lorena;
Agricultura Técnica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072007000200002
Abstract: the aim of this research was to evaluate the ecotoxicological effect of methamidophos using two formulations of different toxicological class [monofos?, class ia (extremely dangerous) and tamaron?, class ib (highly dangerous)] on four non-target aquatic organisms: bloodworm chironomus calligraphus (goeldi, 1905) (diptera: chironomidae), black sea urchin tetrapygus niger molina, 1782 (echinodermata: arbaciidae), neon tetra paracheirodon innesi (rabout, 1940) (osteichthyes: characidae); and rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum, 1792) (osteichthyes: salmonidae). both methamidophos formulations evidenced a high risk effect on the aquatic environment, finding effects on larvae of c. calligraphus (class ia, lc50 at 48 h = 1.32 mg a.i. l-1 and class ib, lc50 at 48 h = 4.5 mg a.i. l-1), on fertilization of t. niger (class ia, ic50 at 1 h = 1423 mg a.i. l-1 and class ib, ic50 at 1 h = 608 mg a.i. l-1), on p. innesi (class ia, lc50 at 96 h = 20.56 mg a.i. l-1 and class ib, lc50 at 96 h = 10.13 mg a.i. l-1) and o. mykiss (class ib, lc50 at 96 h = 19.12 mg a.i. l-1). the sequence of sensibility to methamidophos in both formulations was: c. calligraphus > o. mykiss ≈ p. innesi > t. niger. in addition, two sublethal effects were evaluated on p. innesi, immobilization and strange swimming, and finally an increment of opercular movement in o. mykiss. risk quotients (rq) indicated in all cases a high risk of methamidophos towards the aquatic environments.
EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE)
Iannacone,Jose; Onofre,Roxana; Huanqui,Olga;
Gayana (Concepción) , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-65382007000200005
Abstract: the ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio)-2-dimethyloaminopropan) used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of public health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. poecilia reticulata (peters 1859) ``guppy" (poecilidae) and paracheirodon innesi (myers 1936) ``neon tetra" (characidae) were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. for both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. in p. reticulata after 3 h exposure it was found a lc50 (mean lethal concentration) of 6.75 mg'?l-1 and values of ec50 (mean effective concentration) of <7.55 and <8.16 mg?l-1 as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. for p. innesi, it was found an lc50 value of <0.02 mg?l-1 and values of ec50 of <0.01 and <0.03 mg?l-1, as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. p. innesi was more sensitive to cartap than p. reticulata. risk quotients (rq) to evaluate environmental risk (era) of this insecticide on aquatic ecosystem were calculated, indicating that p. innesi was more accurate than p. reticulata as ecotoxicological tool to evaluate cartap.
EFECTOS ECOTOXICOLOGICOS DEL CARTAP SOBRE POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) Y PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE) ECOTOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARTAP ON POECILIA RETICULATA "GUPPY'' (POECILIDAE) AND PARACHEIRODON INNESI "NEON TETRA'' (CHARACIDAE)
Jose Iannacone,Roxana Onofre,Olga Huanqui
Gayana (Concepción) , 2007,
Abstract: Se evaluó el impacto ecotoxicológico del insecticida carbámico cartap (1,3 di (carbamoytio)-2-dimetiloaminopropano) usado para el control de plagas agrícolas y como molusquicida de vectores de importancia en Salud Pública, sobre dos especies de peces del ecosistema acuático continental: Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859) "guppy" (Poecilidae) y Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae). Ellos fueron utilizados como organismos no destinatarios en ensayos de corta duración, para determinar el impacto toxicológico del cartap. Para ambas especies de peces se evaluó el porcentaje de mortalidad, y dos respuestas subletales: el incremento del movimiento opercular y el nado extra o. A 3 h de exposición para P. reticulata, se encontró un valor de CL50 (Concentración letal media) de 6,75 mg L-1 y valores de CE50 (Concentración efectiva media) de <7,55 y < 8,16 mg L-1 para el incremento del movimiento opercular y nado extra o, respectivamente. Para P. innesi, se encontró un valor de CL50 de <0,02 mg L-1 y valores de CE50 de < 0,01 y < 0,03 mg L-1, para el incremento del movimiento opercular y nado extra o, respectivamente. P. innesi fue más sensible al cartap que P. reticulata. Se calculó los cuocientes de riesgo (RQ) para la evaluación del riesgo ambiental (ERA) de este insecticida sobre el ecosistema acuático, indicando que P. innesi es más adecuada que P. reticulata como herramienta ecotoxicológica para evaluar cartap. The ecotoxicological impact of the carbamate insecticide cartap (1,3 di (carbamoythio)-2-dimethyloaminopropan) used for agriculture pests and as mollusquicide of vectors of Public Health importance was evaluated, on two fish species of the continental aquatic ecosystem. Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859) ``guppy" (Poecilidae) and Paracheirodon innesi (Myers 1936) ``Neon Tetra" (Characidae) were employed as non-target organisms in assays of short duration to determine the toxicological impact of cartap. For both fish, percentage of mortality and two sublethal responses: increase of opercula movement and strange swim, were evaluated. In P. reticulata after 3 h exposure it was found a LC50 (mean Lethal Concentration) of 6.75 mg' L-1 and values of EC50 (mean Effective Concentration) of <7.55 and <8.16 mg L-1 as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. For P. innesi, it was found an LC50 value of <0.02 mg L-1 and values of EC50 of <0.01 and <0.03 mg L-1, as speed up of opercula movement and strange swim, respectively. P. innesi was more sensitive to cartap than P. reticulata. Risk Quotients (RQ) to evaluate environ
Caciques y mandones de Malligasta: Autoridad y memoria en un pueblo de indios de la Rioja colonial
Boixadós,Roxana;
Andes , 2008,
Abstract: this paper examines the process of transformation that took place in malligasta, a small indian village located in jurisdiction of la rioja (gobernación del tucumán), in the colonial period. on the one hand, the paper reconstructs the history of the indian village in connection with the regional history, marked by rebellions, demographic decline and population transfer. on the other hand, it explores the various ways in which the ethnic authorities, the caciques and mandones, clashed with the jesuit order which was trying to take over parts of communal lands. while the jesuits questioned the legitimacy of caciques and mandones as "natural lords", the latter developed their own arguments to defend their interests and those of their community.
No ha tenido hijo que más se le parezca así en la cara como en su buen proceder: una aproximación al problema del mestizaje y la bastardía en La Rioja colonial
Boixadós,Roxana;
Memoria americana , 2005,
Abstract: this article analyzes the link between mestizaje and bastardy through the history of an elite family from colonial la rioja, the brizuelas. by recontructing the personal trajectories of some illegitimate or mestizo family members we were able to explore several strategies of family integration and also different contexts of rejection or tolerance in the local society.
Recreando un mundo perdido. Los pueblos de indios del valle de Famatina a traves de la visita de 1667 (La Rioja, gobernación de Tucumán)
Boixadós, Roxana
Poblaci?3n y sociedad , 2007,
Abstract: The article analyses the “Visita” of 1667 to the Indigenous villages of Famatina Valley after the finalization of the period of Indigenous uprisings. It is examined the advance of “hispanización” from the perspective of the nominative system, the role of the “curacas”, the access to the land, the labour regime and the cultural mixed group formations. It is also evaluated the living conditions of the native communities in the Colonial society until the end of the 17th century.
No ha tenido hijo que más se le parezca así en la cara como en su buen proceder: una aproximación al problema del mestizaje y la bastardía en La Rioja colonial
Roxana Boixadós
Memoria Americana , 2005,
Abstract: El trabajo analiza el problema del mestizaje en relación con la bastardía tomando a una familia de la élite riojana colonial -los Brizuela- como estudio de caso. La reconstrucción de los derroteros personales de mestizos, naturales e ilegítimos permite explorar los mecanismos de integración familiar y los diferentes contextos de tolerancia y rechazo en el medio social local. This article analyzes the link between mestizaje and bastardy through the history of an elite family from colonial La Rioja, the Brizuelas. By recontructing the personal trajectories of some illegitimate or mestizo family members we were able to explore several strategies of family integration and also different contexts of rejection or tolerance in the local society.
Visita a las encomiendas de indios de Córdoba. 1692-1693: Transcripción y estudios sobre la visita de Antonio Martines Luxan de Vargas
Roxana Boixadós
Memoria Americana , 2010,
Abstract:
Dilemmas and discourses on the continuity of the Indian towns of La Rioja's jurisdiction under the Bourbon reforms Dilemas y discursos sobre la continuidad de los pueblos de indios de la jurisdicción de La Rioja bajo las reformas borbónicas
Roxana Boixadós
Mundo agrario , 2012,
Abstract: The work approaches the challenges to the continuity of the towns of raised Indians of the Rioja from the speeches of civil employees, neighborsand you cure parish priests who marked the old native corporation like a "problem" throughout century XVIII. The policies implemented by the borbónica management aimed to obtain greater fiscal collection through periodic empadronamientos and you revisit that they on a par categorizaban to the population that evaluated of critical way the chaste relation between the tributary one and the rights to earth. Diverse proposals of transfers of population, "depopulated" earth leasing or closing threatened the continuity of the towns of Indians and generated different alternatives from chaste answer on the part of the tributary one. El trabajo aborda los desafíos a la continuidad de los pueblos de indios de La Rioja, planteados a partir de los discursos de funcionarios, vecinos y curas párrocos que marcaban a la antigua corporación nativa como un "problema" a lo largo del siglo XVIII. Las políticas implementadas por la gestión borbónica apuntaron a lograr mayor recaudación fiscal a través de periódicos empadronamientos y revisitas que categorizaban a la población, a la par que evaluaban de manera crítica la relación entre la casta tributaria y los derechos a las tierras. Propuestas diversas de traslados de población, arriendo o remate de tierras “despobladas” amenazaron la continuidad de los pueblos de indios y generaron distintas alternativas de respuesta por parte de la casta tributaria.
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