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Seed Producer Organization of Farmer: An Experience of Western Terai, Nepal
S Dhakal
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v3i0.9018
Abstract: Use of improved seeds has a vital role in enhancing agricultural production. Agriculture extension has implemented farmers’ managed seed multiplication program at the community level to ensure efficient supply of improved seeds. Several success and failure cases of seed multiplication through farmers' organizations were experienced. Therefore, a case study was conducted in the western terai region of Nepal to explore the factors responsible for success/failure of farmers' organizations involved in seed production. The results of the study found that internal factors of group, nature of extension support, quality control mechanism, and seed marketing approaches are the key elements, which affect the performance of farmers' organizations- seed groups and cooperatives. It was also observed that organizations developed in farmers' own initiatives performed better than those formed in external influence. The results of this research suggest that the autonomy of group actions has long term impact on ownership development. Business skills, technical skills and organizational management skills were equally important for the viability of farmers' organizations so far as seed business is concerned.
Refractive Error Profile in a Tertiary Centre in Western Nepal
S Taludhar,S Dhakal
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ijim.v2i2.8324
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Refractive error is one of the causes of avoidable blindness. Myopia, hypermetropia and astigmatism are the common types of refractive error. Not many studies are done to detect pattern of refractive error in Western Nepal. So, the study will determine the prevalence and distribution of refractive errors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study of all consecutive patients of age less than 40 years who visited eye department, Gandaki Medical College, between May 2010 and May 2011 was conducted. Visual acuity, naked eye and pin hole examination was done by ophthalmic assistant with cycloplegic refraction when needed. Those who did not turn up for refraction were excluded from the study. RESULTS: A total of 601 patients were seen within the study period. Mean age of male patients was 22.4 years ?}0.6 (95% CI, 21.2-23.6 years) and mean age of female patients was 24.2 years ?}0.5 (95% CI, 23.2-25.2 years). Majority of the patients were in age group 11-20 years (39.3%). Myopia was the most common refractive error (43.3%) followed by simple myopic astigmatism (23.8%). Refractive errors were more common in females. CONCLUSIONS: Myopia was the commonest refractive compared to hypermetropia. Refractive error was more common in females than in males. Such studies help to know the picture of refractive errors in community and such reports are helpful in planning programme to prevent avoidable blindness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijim.v2i2.8324 Int J Infect Microbiol 2013;2(2):59-63
A pattern of ocular morbidity of patients attending a clinic in Western Nepal
S Tuladhar,S Dhakal
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/ijim.v1i1.6941
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Very few reports exist regarding the causes of ocular morbidity in Western Nepal. The study is performed to identify the causes of ocular morbidity in a clinic at Waling in Western Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was done by reviewing the case records of all patients attending the eye clinic at Waling from August 2010 to August 2011. RESULTS: The study included 915 patients, 617 were females (67.5%), and 298 were males (32.5%). Refractive error was the most common ocular morbidity accounting 26.8% followed by conjunctivitis 20.6%, cataract 11.8%, pterygium 6%, chalazion/stye 4%, ectropion/entropion 3.9%, keratitis 3.8%, dry eyes 2.8%, and corneal opacities 2.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The study gives a picture and patterns of ocular disease in Western Nepal which will be helpful in planning & management of ocular health programmes in Nepal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijim.v1i1.6941 Int J Infect Microbiol 2012;1(1):34-37
The Local Environmental, Economic and Social Tragedies of International Interventions on Community Based Forest Management for Global Environmental Conservation: A Critical Evaluation  [PDF]
Bhubaneswor Dhakal
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2014.41010
Abstract:

This study reviewed the policies and outcomes of international support for forest management in Nepal and answered whether international support on forest management in developing countries resulted in positive socioeconomic and environmental outcomes at local communities. The evaluation is based on the socio-ecological theory and synergies-tradeoff model of forestry ecosystems goods and services. The study shows that the international interventions influenced national policies and community forestry practices, which contributed to the remarkable increase of forest stock. The new forestry institutions increased timber product supplies to urban users and contributed to offsetting of greenhouse gas emission of affluent societies in overseas. However, the intervention spoiled centuries of old forestry practices, which had contributed to the evolvement of socio-ecological condition, sustained local economy and environment systems. The new forestry institutions and practices locked local opportunities of multipurpose uses of forest, worsened water yield and local knowledge, and hampered local economic activities. Consequently they affected habitat diversities for forest based species, and forest resource supplies for sustaining agrobiodiversities and local food security. In reality the interventions increased benefit to distant users (urban users in the country and affluent societies in overseas) and further marginalized local communities and particularly socially disadvantaged people. The paper shows that the international forestry policies and supports are technically wrong or poorly based on science which is against their promise of providing better technical supports and benefiting local communities in developing countries. It argues that the interventions created many complexities in forestry institutions and practices which require too costly endeavor to change and address the local socioeconomic and environmental problems. The paper has explained the root cause of the international policy problem on many schools of thought.

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Impact of Cardamom Cultivation on the Composition and Dynamics of Soil Seed Banks in a Conservation Forest in Sri Lanka: Implications for Conservation  [PDF]
Balram Dhakal
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2017.73019
Abstract: Cultivation of cash crops, such as cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) in the forest understorey is a common practice in many tropical forests. Over time, cultivation may change forest structure and species composition, leading to gradual degradation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Effective conservation of these forests requires an enhanced understanding of the demographic processes such as soil seed bank that may greatly influence future forest composition. We examined how the soil seed bank structure and composition responds to cardamom cultivation in a high conservation value Sri Lankan montane rain forest. Soil samples from natural forest with abandoned cardamom plantations (CP) and adjacent natural forest (NF) patches without cardamom were collected in dry and wet seasons. Soil samples were spread out in trays in a shade house and germination was recorded weekly for 19 weeks. The density of seeds in the soil seed bank was much higher in CP than NF. While grasses and forbs contributed the highest number and percentage of seeds in soils of both forest types, their densities in the soil seed bank were 9 and 2 times greater in the CP than the NF, respectively. Seeds of the non-native herbs Ageratina riparia and E. cardamomum were 4 and 20 times greater in the soil of CP, respectively. Seeds of light demanding tree species such as Macaranga indica were restricted to soils of CPs. Overstorey tree community of each forest type was poorly represented in their respective soil seed banks. The high density of seeds of pioneer trees and non-native herbs in the soil of CPs, combined with higher light transmission to the ground floor may exacerbate competition for resources with the seedlings of late successional trees of high conservation value. To overcome this barrier and enhance conservation value of the forest, restoration strategies may need to focus on transplanting seedlings of these species into forest with abandoned cardamom plantations.
Knowledge about HIV transmission, behavior and self-perception about risk of getting HIV among men
NL Oli,SR Onta,S Dhakal
Journal of Institute of Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/joim.v34i2.9043
Abstract: Introduction: In spite on a lot of work done by nongovernmental organizations of men having sex with men (MSM) with the collaboration of Nepal government there is high prevalence of unprotected anal sex with a high incidence of sexual partner change. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission, behavior and self-perception about risk of getting HIV among men having sex with men in Kathmandu Valley. Methods: This is cross-sectional explorative study. Study was carried out between July 2010 and December 2010 in 97 men having sex with men in Kathmandu Valley using snow balling sampling technique. The verbal consent was taken and the respondents were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Results: Although overall knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and Sexual transmitted Infections (STI) is high some misconception about way of transmission is present. Majority of respondents still practiced unsafe sexual behaviors, which included multiple sex partners, irregular use of condom, frequent and regular anal sex, sex in exchange of money. More than half of them considered that they had little risk of getting HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Sexual behavior of men having sex with men needs to be further addressed in order to promote safer and responsible sexual behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/joim.v34i2.9043 Journal of Institute of Medicine August, 2012; 34:2 4-9
Common positioning and technical errors in panoramic radiography
S Pandey,KM Pai,A Dhakal
Journal of Chitwan Medical College , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/jcmc.v4i1.10844
Abstract: Panoramic radiograph is one of the routinely used investigations in dentistry. The value of panoramic radiograph is reduced when they are of poor diagnostic quality. Therefore, the aim of the study is to be aware of the common positional and tech-nical errors so as to minimize such errors occurring in the department. Panoramic radiographs of all the patients, who were taking radiographs for their own diagnostic purpose, were examined. All Radiographs taken for a 3 months period were 1010. All panoramic radiographs examined for various errors. Data were analyzed for the frequency of some common faults, both technical and processing errors, which directly contributed to failure of the radiographs. Total 1010 radiographs were analyzed for errors. 27.5% (n=278) were showing errors which ranged from technical errors 11.3% ( n=14) to positional errors 16.2% (n=164) and 72.5% of radiographs were error free. Most common technical error was density/dark radiographs which were 45% (n=51) and the most common positional error found was tongue not resting against the palate, 20% (n=32). Dark radiograph and tongue not resting against the palate were found common errors. Fewer errors are likely to be made when a quality assurance regimen and proper training, which includes the recognition and correction of errors, is followed DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmc.v4i1.10844 Journal of Chitwan Medical College 2014; 4(1): 26-29
Status of tuberculosis in bovine animals raised by tuberculosis infected patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal
G Pandey,S Dhakal,A Sadaula,G KC,S Subedi,KR Pandey,IP Dhakal
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/ijim.v1i2.7407
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important public health concern worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the status of bTB in animals raised by tuberculosis patients in Western Chitwan, Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 100 bovines (cattle and buffalo) raised in 60 farms of tuberculosis patients were tested with single intradermal tuberculin test considering various animal factors. Well designed questionnaire survey was taken with 70 tuberculosis patients of same 60 families focusing knowledge, awareness and various practices related to bovine tuberculosis. RESULTS: Overall 15% bovines were positive for tuberculosis (13.6% cattle and 15.4% buffaloes). Age of animal was significantly associated with tuberculosis (p<0.05) while sex and species were not. 24% tuberculosis patients had raw milk consuming habit while very few of them (9%) were aware of zoonotic aspect of bovine tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: There is high chance of tuberculosis transmission form animals to humans or vice versa. Further detailed study is needed in large scale with stronger intersectoral collaboration of medical and veterinary health sector to determine the scale of problem and find out prevention and control strategies against zoonotic tuberculosis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijim.v1i2.7407 Int J Infect Microbiol 2012;1(1):49-53
Clearing Deleterious Proteins for Healthier Aging  [PDF]
Ian Macreadie, Sudip Dhakal
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.75010
Abstract:
The build-up of deleterious proteins is one of the biggest problems in aging. The brain, the organ most sensitive to this phenomenon, seeks to maintain the correct balance by the process known as proteostasis but this process declines with aging. Reduced proteostasis causes major age-related diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, and prion diseases, where aberrant proteins are known to associate with such diseases. Being able to restore proteostasis is likely to slow age-related decline in brain function, but the challenges are to find chemo preventatives that can enhance proteostasis to youthful levels, and to know how to administer these chemopreventative agents. A combination of epidemiology and studies in a convenient model system are providing approaches to find answers to these important questions.
Spectrum of cutaneous manifestations in lupus erythematous -a dermatologist perspective
S Bhattarai,S Agrawal,A Rijal,SK Sharma,SS Dhakal
Health Renaissance , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/hren.v10i1.5999
Abstract: Background : The cutaneous manifestations of lupus erythematosus (LE) specific skin disease consists of acute cutaneous LE (ACLE), Subacute cutaneous (SCLE) and Chronic cutaneous (CCLE). Objective : To evaluate the spectrum of cutaneous manifestation in patients of LE. Methods : A case series of 41 clinically diagnosed cases of LE attending the outpatient department of Dermatology, BPKIHS were evaluated for the specific and non-specific skin changes. Results: All the patients enrolled in the study were female,with the age ranging from 14-64 years. ACLE was detected in 22/41(78.04%). Malar rash was the frequent skin lesion. CCLE was seen in 6/41 (14.63%) patients with classical discoid lesions (localized and generalized) in 4/6(66.66%) and 2/6(33.33%) respectively. Non specific skin lesions were found in 30/ 41(73.17%) of patients. Mucosal ulcers were seen in 23/41(56.09%), Facial telangiectasias 20/41(48.78%), Raynaunds phenomena 22/41(53.65%), Chronic urticaria 9/41(21.95%), Nail changes 12/41(29.26%) and non scarring alopecia was seen in 6/41(14.63%) patients. Eye involvement was seen in 3/41(7.3%), cutaneous vasculitis in 5/41(12.19%) and scaring alopecia in 3/41(7.3%) patients. Conclusion: The cutaneous manifestations of patients with lupus erythematosus (LE) are very frequent, show a great variety and can occur at any stage of the disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hren.v10i1.5999 HREN 2012; 10(1): 8-11
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