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Spatial and temporal variation in cadmium body loads of four intertidal invertebrates from False Bay, South Africa.
Adriaan Jacobus Reinecke,Naomi Mdzeke,Sophia Aletta Reiencke
African Zoology , 2012,
Abstract: Increasing urbanization and industrialization along the coastal areas of False Bay in South Africa can endanger coastal ecosystems because of increasing metal pollution. To obtain baseline data on contamination levels in the intertidal zone, cadmium (Cd) body loads of four invertebrate species were measured seasonally over a period of 15 months from different sites within the bay. Specimens of Tetraclita serrata (barnacle), Oxystele sinenses (periwinkle), Cymbula oculus (limpet) and Choromytilus meridionalis (mussel) were collected and analysed to determine temporal changes in Cd body burdens. Cd concentrations were also measured in water and sediments. Cd concentrations in the intertidal animals varied considerably between sampling sites and between seasons and also occasionally between species. All four species accumulated Cd in their bodies to levels several times higher than environmental concentrations. No significant difference could be shown between the Cd concentrations in the gastropod grazers and the filter feeders. The highest mean body load of Cd (70.67 mg/g dry weight) for a single sampling occasion was measured in the sessile barnacles (T. serrata) collected at Rooiels. The highest mean Cd concentration (11.95μg/g) for the bay as a whole was measured in the limpet C. oculus. Two-way analysis of variance indicated that spatial (locations) rather than temporal (seasonal) factors affected Cd concentrations in the invertebrates. Cd concentrations in the bay sometimes exceeded the norms or water quality standards.
Australian and South African perspectives on the implementation of flexible work practices (Fwp): an exploratory study
Aletta Odendaal,Gert Roodt
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 2002, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v28i3.57
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify examples of good and innovative practices of Flexible Work Practices to benchmark against and then to use the information to develop strategies of implementation that will assist South African organisations to emulate their success. One hundred-and-twenty (120) individuals, representing different stakeholder groups were requested to complete a questionnaire, based on an Australian study. Comparative findings of both countries strongly confirmed variables that are positively associated with the adoption and successful implementation of Flexible Work Practices (FWP). Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om voorbeelde van goeie en innoverende gebruike van Buigsame Werkspraktyke te identifiseer ten einde daarteen te kan vergelyk, en dan om hierdie inligting te gebruik ten einde implementeringstrategie te ontwikkel wat Suid Afrikaanse maatskappye kan gebruik om sukses na te volg. Honderd en twintig (120) individue, wat verskillende belangegroepe verteenwoordig, is genader om ‘n vraelys, gebaseer op ‘n Australiese studie, te voltooi. Vergelykende bevindinge van beide lande bevestig veranderlikes wat positief geassosieer word met die aanvaarding en suksesvolle implementering van Buigsame Werkspraktyke (BWP).
La ficción : espacio simbólico de la ausencia en la novela argentina contemporánea
Graciela Aletta?de?Sylvas
Amerika : Mémoires, Identités, Territoires , 2010, DOI: 10.4000/amerika.1177
Abstract: La narrativa argentina ha producido novelas que narran los horrores de la dictadura militar que se gestó entre 1976 y 1983. En este trabajo hemos recortado la temática de los desaparecidos y la apropiación de hijos.Resulta insoslayable relacionar los procedimientos del terrorismo de Estado llevado a cabo por la dictadura argentina con el holocausto nazi y subrayar el componente de perversión con que fueron ejecutados. La memoria se reconstruye en las tramas discursivas a través del lenguaje, y la literatura es una de las tres maneras simbólicas que permite abordar la cuestión del Mal.Las novelas elegidas se sostienen no sólo en la elección del tema, sino en el valor de su escritura : A veinte a os, Luz (1998) de E. Osorio ; Tumba de jaguares (2005) de A. Gorodischer ; El secreto y las voces (2002) de C. Gamerro ; Purgatorio (2008) de T. Eloy Martínez ; Dos veces junio (2002) de M. Kohan y Los Topos (2008) de F. Bruzzone. Apelan al realismo, al componente fantástico, a la estructura rizomática, a la polifonía y a la parodia ; todas subrayan el componente ficcional sin excluir el contexto. Nuestra lectura constituye una manera de exorcizar la ausencia y el olvido porque recurre a la memoria del pasado para construir el presente. Many Argentine authors have written novels about the military period that took place in that country between 1976 and 1983. In this work we have chosen the theme about disappeared people and kidnapped children. We compare this period with perverse proceedings committed during the Nazi Holocaust. Literature can build the memory with its language. We have chosen : A veinte a os, Luz (1998) by E. Osorio, Tumba de Jaguares (2005) by A. Gorodischer, Purgatorio (2008) by T. Eloy Martínez, El secreto y las voces (2002) by C. Gamerro, Dos veces junio (2002) by M. Kohan, y Los Topos (2008) by F. Bruzzone. These pieces of literature build their memory of dictatorship with its own language and they use different approaches to express their fictions, like realism, the fantasy, polyphonies, and parody. Our reading is a way to remember the absence and the oblivion by the memory of the past looking forward to the future.
Moral perfectionism and democratic responsiveness: reading Cavell with Foucault
Aletta J. Norval
Ethics & Global Politics , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/egp.v4i4.14448
Abstract: Starting from existing interpretations of Cavell's account of moral perfectionism, this article seeks to elaborate an account of democratic responsiveness that foregrounds notions of ‘turning’ and ‘manifesting for another’. In contrast to readings of Cavell that privilege reason-giving, the article draws on the writings of Cavell as well as on Foucault's work on parrēsia to elaborate a grammar of responsiveness that is attentive to a wider range of practices, forms of embodiment and modes of subjectivity. The article suggests that a focus on the notions of ‘turning’ and ‘manifesting for another’ is crucial if we are to account for the processes through which political imagination is opened up so as to bring about novel ways of being and acting. The arguments are illustrated with reference to recent events in the Arab Spring as well as to the politics of redress in a post-transitional social movement, Khulumani.
Entrepreneurs’ Views on the Effectiveness of the Adult Skills Development for Self-Employment in the National Literacy Programme of Namibia  [PDF]
Aletta Tuyenikelao Shikukumwa, Alex Tubawene Kanyimba, Rakel Kavena Shalyefu
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.46021
Abstract: The Adult Skills Development for Self-employment in the Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture is a partnership venture between the Directorate of Adult Education and the First National Bank of Namibia, which provides a Credit Guarantee Scheme as the common element of contract between these institutions. The aim of this paper is to report on the participating entrepreneurs’ views regarding the effectiveness of the Adult Skills Development for Self-employment in the National Literacy Programme in the Khomas Education Region of Namibia. The results show that the project held some benefits for these entrepreneurs in terms of profits generated as well as enabling them to meet living expenses. The training enabled them to record income and calculate expenditure on rent, telephone, water and electricity bills, savings, loan payments, salaries and other cost-related issues. However, knowledge pertaining to how to write a business proposal and conduct market research was still lacking as these issues were not addressed during the training provided. The challenges hampering the effectiveness of the self-employment project are the existence of red-tape; poor communication between the Ministry of Education and First National Bank of Namibia; the long route taken to process loans; screening procedures and delays caused by the bank. The possible support measures proposed to improve the effectiveness of the Adult Skills Development for Self-employment relate to the Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture, Ministry of Gender and Child Welfare and the possible involvement of other financial institutions. The recommendations to improve the project’s effectiveness involve the Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture, the Directorate of Adult Education and First National Bank of Namibia. These entities need to revisit some of their strategies taking into account the views outlined in this paper.
USING THE INTERNET FOR DEMOCRACY: A STUDY OF SOUTH AFRICA, KENYA AND ZAMBIA
Aletta H. Janse van Rensburg
Global Media Journal : African Edition , 2012, DOI: 10.5789/6-1-84
Abstract: For the first time since democracy in the classical Greek sense became practically impossible, the Internet’s networking possibilities are creating opportunities for all citizens to be active engaging participants in democracy. Open communication channels to government and fellow citizens can now be a reality that allows people at all levels of society to form part of a vibrant public sphere by exchanging ideas, sharing experiences, spreading ideologies and news, and comparing agendas. For African countries dealing with unique and increasingly complicated political and socio-economic issues, the Internet provides a platform from which citizens can now address these issues themselves and, in doing so, contribute to a public sphere that strengthens the democratic fibre of their countries. This research posits that the Internet has significant potential to stimulate democratic culture through public discourse and citizen participation. The focus of this study is on finding evidence-based information about the current influence of information and communication technology (ICT) usage in South Africa, Kenya and Zambia as representatives of sub-Saharan Africa, and with specific focus on Internet usage through computers and mobile phones. The research also investigates the capacity and opportunity citizens have to successfully integrate ICTs into the accomplishment of self and mutually identified political goals in order to strengthen a broader democratic culture.
Better Quasi-Ordered Transition Systems
Parosh Aziz Abdulla,Aletta Nylen
Computer Science , 2004,
Abstract: Many existing algorithms for model checking of infinite-state systems operate on constraints which are used to represent (potentially infinite) sets of states. A general powerful technique which can be employed for proving termination of these algorithms is that of well quasi-orderings. Several methodologies have been proposed for derivation of new well quasi-ordered constraint systems. However, many of these constraint systems suffer from a "constraint explosion problem", as the number of the generated constraints grows exponentially with the size of the problem. In this paper, we demonstrate that a refinement of the theory of well quasi-orderings, called the theory of better quasi-orderings, is more appropriate for symbolic model checking, since it allows inventing constraint systems which are both well quasi-ordered and compact. As a main application, we introduce existential zones, a constraint system for verification of systems with unboundedly many clocks and use our methodology to prove that existential zones are better quasi-ordered. We show how to use existential zones in verification of timed Petri nets and present some experimental results. Also, we apply our methodology to derive new constraint systems for verification of broadcast protocols, lossy channel systems, and integral relational automata. The new constraint systems are exponentially more succinct than existing ones, and their well quasi-ordering cannot be shown by previous methods in the literature.
Photochemical Properties of Precipitated Solid Aerosol Produced by Burning of Titanium Microparticles under Ambient Air  [PDF]
Valery Zakharenko, Sophia Khromova
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2010.12017
Abstract: In order to neutralize a drastic pollution of the environment (technogenic catastrophe) it is suggested to use technogenic technologies of chemical compound decontamination. One in such technologies can be the technology using metal oxide solid aerosols which are active in removal of pollutant compounds and obtainable by combustion under ambient air of appropriate metal particles, for example, aluminum, magnesium, titanium and etc. It is shown that the titanium dioxide out of an solid aerosol, obtained by pyrotechnic mixture combustion containing titanium microparticles has optic, chemical and photocatalytic properties close to properties of titanium dioxide produced by a different way. The production of such aerosol in direct place of a technogenic catastrophe can be made for the cleaning of atmosphere near a pollution source.
The Upper Jordan River Algal Communities are Evidence of Long-Term Climatic and Anthropogenic Impacts  [PDF]
Sophia S. Barinova, Eviatar Nevo
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.26058
Abstract: Spatial and temporal algal diversity changes were studied in the major drinking water source of Israel - the Upper Jordan River. During 2006-2009, we found 232 species and infraspecies of algae and cyanobacteria: 85 of which were new for the Upper Jordan River Basin including three new for Israel. During many years of study of the Upper Jordan River, we collected information for the database of algal diversity. Historical analysis from 1883 to 2009 shows fluctuation of the whole algal diversity. Environmental indicator species show peaks in 1951, 1965, 1978, and 2009. Salinity impact was found in 1938 and 2000; acidification was detected in 1938, 1996, and 2000, and organic pollution, in 1996. Therefore, we can conclude that 1938, 1996, and 2000 were critical periods for the Upper Jordan River ecosystem. Indication of the trophic status shows stress of organic pollution since the 1970s, which was marked by dramatic increases in eutraphentic and hypereutraphentic species. The present analysis shows three peaks in the fluctuation in diversity throughout the river canal, which correlated with the organic pollution impact from the Masade village effluence in the middle reaches and near Lake Kinneret. Pollution was significant in rainy winters and stimulated species diversity development. The different approaches in comparing diversity in each river of the Upper Jordan Basin revealed that hydrology is a major regulating factor in species composition of the algal communities, which were formed under the influence of regional climatic factors. Therefore, the river can be highlighted as a natural system with high buffering and a self-purification capacity at the present time.
Identification of Unknown Groundwater Pollution Sources and Determination of Optimal Well Locations Using ANN-GA Based Simulation-Optimization Model  [PDF]
Sophia Leichombam, Rajib Kumar Bhattacharjya
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.83034
Abstract: The linked simulation-optimization model can be used for solving a complex groundwater pollution source identification problem. Advanced simulators have been developed and successfully linked with numerous optimization algorithms for identification of groundwater pollution sources. However, the identification of pollution sources in a groundwater aquifer using linked simulation-optimization model has proven to be computationally expensive. To overcome this computational burden, an approximate simulator, the artificial neural network (ANN) model can be used as a surrogate model to replace the complex time-consuming numerical simulation model. However, for large-scale aquifer system, the performance of the ANN-based surrogate model is not satisfactory when a single ANN model is used to predict the concentration at different observation locations. In such a situation, the model efficiency can be enhanced by developing separate ANN model for each of the observation locations. The number of ANN models is equal to the number of observation wells in the aquifer. As a result, the complexity of the ANN-based simulation-optimization model will be related to the number of observation wells. Thus, this study used a modified formulation to find out the optimal numbers of observation wells which will eventually reduce the computational time of the model. The performance of the ANN-based simulation-optimization model is evaluated by identifying the groundwater pollutant sources of a hypothetical study area. The limited evaluation shows that the model has the potential for field application.
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