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Constraint and opportunity of raw jute production : A case study of eastern Terai, Nepal
TB Ghimire, NS Thakur
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v3i0.9013
Abstract: Area and production of raw jute has decreased, though there is a high demand of raw jute in the country. In order to assess production constraints, a survey was carried out in 2005/06 in Jhapa, Morang and Sunsari districts. The study revealed that unstable or low price of raw jute, unavailability of quality jute seed, limited irrigation water at sowing period, diseases complex (wilt), labor shortage during peak season, weed problem, lack of retting water/retting pond were the main constraints in jute production and processing. The study indicates that the maximum production cost has involved in fiber extraction (16.9%) and weeding (16.33%). Jute productivity ranged from 1788 to 2260 kg per hectare. JRO-524 variety of jute has been widely grown across the region due to its wider adaptability, high yield potential and quality fiber. Jute area has been replaced by sugarcane due to its high yield potential and high profit margin. It is observed that the cost of production of jute is high as compared to other crops in the season. Average cost of production of fiber was estimated to be Rs.1563/quintal. For the promotion of jute cultivation in the eastern Terai, it would be better to provide subsidies on seeds and fertilizer to jute growers as practiced in neighboring countries thereby profit margin becomes high and will encourage growers in producing more raw jute within the country for the fulfillment of raw jute requirement of local jute industries. Cost effective technologies have to be developed in jute production and processing aspects for lowering the production cost and increasing the profit margin. Popular genotypes JRO- 524 which was widely adopted needs to be recommended officially for the general cultivation in this region. Being an eco-friendly crop, promotion is required to adapt climate change effect and maintaining the soil properties in jute growing areas.
Patient safety:Minimising medical error
TB Welzel
Continuing Medical Education , 2012,
Abstract:
Exploring the acute myeloid leukaemias
TB Thapa
Journal of Pathology of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jpn.v3i6.9001
Abstract: The acute myeloid leukemias are genetically a diverse group of neoplasm with varied clinical behavior and response to treatment. Advances in immunophenotyping, cytogenetics and molecular genetics have resulted in better understanding of their genesis. Risk stratification of different variants is now emerging. Therapy strategies are now increasingly being developed considering the inherent biological behavior of the different subtypes. It is anticipated that in the future, deeper secrets of these once fatal diseases will be unraveled by advances in newer genomic techniques. It is hoped that future use of gene specific tailored therapy and strategies will result in longer survival in cases showing poorer prognosis at present. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v3i6.9001 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2013) Vol. 3 , 497-501
Yield prediction and nitrogen recommendation in maize using normalized difference vegetation index
TB Karki
Agronomy Journal of Nepal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ajn.v3i0.9009
Abstract: A study was carried out using three maize genotypes with three levels of nitrogen (30 kg, 60 kg and 120 kg per hectare) during the summer season of 2010 and 2011with the aim of predicting maize (Zea mays L.) yield through the Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The NDVI was recorded at different times throughout the growing season using a Greenseeker? handheld sensor. Significant effect of genotypes and nutrient levels on the NDVI was observed at different growth stages of maize. There was positive correlation between the NDVI and grain yield. In the first season, the correlation coefficients were 0.90, 0.92, 0.76 and 0.73, respectively at 15, 45, 75 and 110 days after seeding. In the second season, the correlation coefficients were 0.80, 0.92, 0.77 and 0.75 respectively at 15, 45, 75 and 110 days after seeding. The NDVI based N calculator showed that irrespective of genotypes, yield potentials under farmers' levels of nutrient management were almost half of the recommended doses of nitrogen. The amount of N to be top dressed decreased with increased crop duration. Grain yield varied significantly due to season, genotypes and nutrient levels. NDVI was affected due to season, stages of the crop (DAS), genotypes and nutrient levels. Interaction effects were significant for season x genotype, growth stage x genotype, growth stage x nutrient levels, genotype x nutrient levels and genotype x growth stage x nutrient levels. There was a strong positive correlation between NDVI and grain yields of hybrid maize at 15 and 45 DAS, but this correlation declined thereafter. This means that N top-dressed at or after 75 days of seed sowing will not increase grain yield as significantly as N applied earlier in the season. In contrast, topdressed N was producing significant effects on the open pollinated Rampur Composite even after 75 days of seed sowing. Further confirmation of the finding could be useful for top dressing N in the maize crop.
Application of a 2D Hydrodynamic Model for Assessing Flood Risk from Extreme Storm Events
Sohan Ghimire
Climate , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/cli1030148
Abstract: In the wake of increasing flood disasters, there is an increasing use of flood inundation models to assess risks and impacts at different temporal and spatial scales. Assessing the impacts of extreme climatic rainfall events will require developing design rainfall profiles to represent rainfall under different conditions. Rainfall profiles of different return periods were developed using the Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH) methodology for a small rural catchment of Scotland, to assess flood risks at a catchment scale. Rainfall induced runoff flows were estimated based on a set of catchment characteristics. The channel and floodplain flows were modelled using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model-TUFLOW. The main channel was represented by a one-dimensional linear channel based on surveyed data and the floodplain topography, was represented by a digital terrain model based on Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). A range of hydrological events with different return periods are simulated. Results show that many residential houses and an extensive area of agricultural land are at risk of flooding from extreme events such as a 1 in 100 year flood.
The Law of the Iterated Logarithm in Analaysis
Santosh Ghimire
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v9i1.10674
Abstract: ?In this paper, we first discuss the history of the law of the iterated logarithm. We then focus our discussion on how it was introduced in analysis. Finally we mention different types of law of the iterated logarithm and state some of the recent developments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jie.v9i1.10674 Journal of the Institute of Engineering , Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 89–94
Weighted Inequality
Santosh Ghimire
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v10i1.10887
Abstract: ?In this paper, we define Ap weights, briefly discuss the theory of weighted inequalities and its application and importance in various fields. We then prove that for an Ap weight function w and for some , the function, min(w, k) is an Ap weight function. Finally we establish the weighted inequality for min(w, k). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jie.v10i1.10887 Journal of the Institute of Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2014 pp. 121–124
Land tenure in hydropower development: A review
Subash Ghimire
Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/kuset.v8i2.7332
Abstract: Land tenure issues such as tenure forms and its allocation and land acquisition procedure are not extensively considered in hydropower development. As a result hydropower projects are not sustainable. The main aim of the study is to find the role of land tenure in hydropower development. Desk study is carried out and is followed by the scientific literature review. The study reveals that the concession with broader negotiations and agreements is carried out for interfering the land rights for the construction of hydropower project in Norway because of which the Aurland hydropower project got successful. The capability and economical willingness to include land and environmental issues from the start of the project to operation stage made the development successful while concession is practiced in China without broader negotiations and public participation as in Nu river project. Therefore, a Chinese hydropower concession is controversial. Many of the proposed dam is situated in UNESCO world heritage site and in the conservation area. Nu river project affects number of distinct ethnic groups who maintain their religious and cultural tradition. Resettlement is not possible on this ethnic group because of integration into population of various customs, languages and agricultural tradition. In case of Nepal in general, concessions is not practiced during hydropower development. Transparency in information dissemination, decision making, involvement of key stakeholders on key issues and time bound solution can hardly be found during hydropower development. Mostly, land is expropriated for the development of the hydropower project. The study finds that Land tenure has very important role in hydropower development. Therefore, it should be extensively considered for sustainable development of the hydropower projects. Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 8, No. II, December, 2012, 101-108 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/kuset.v8i2.7332
Macro Development and Micro Social Processes: Development as Discourse in Nepal
Sujan Ghimire
Occasional Papers in Sociology and Anthropology , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/opsa.v11i0.3038
Abstract: This paper points out that to understand development processes, examining aid impacts at local level is as important as studying the impacts of development at the macro level. Studying development at local levels entails understanding the different societal processes triggered off by aid including the undesired and unplanned consequences. DOI: 10.3126/opsa.v11i0.3038 Occasional Papers in Sociology and Anthropology Vol.11 2009 221-243
Maternal Mortality: Sharing Experience from Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital
S Ghimire
Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/njog.v7i2.11140
Abstract: Aims: To analyse causes of maternal deaths and to identify avoidable factors. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of maternal deaths, during a period of one year from 15th April, 2011-15th April, 2012, at Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar in the Eastern Region of Nepal case files and hospital records being the data sources. All the maternal deaths were recorded. Results: In one year study period, out of a total of 2,754 deliveries, there were 8 maternal deaths giving maternal mortality ratio of 310/100,000 live births. Three of them resulted from an induced abortion mishap and five of them were obstetric deaths. Four of the direct obstetric deaths resulted from complications of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) of which one case died due to traumatic post partum hemorrhage postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) as a result of torrential bleeding from extensive vaginal wall tear. One indirect obstetric death occurred in a case of twin pregnancy with severe anemia and congestive cardiac failure. Conclusions: Provision of safe abortion services is still not available to many women despite of legalization of abortion in Nepal. Quality antenatal care services would be helpful in avoiding maternal mortality in many situations by detecting and managing medical complications of pregnancy. DOI: http://www.dx.doi.org/10.3126/njog.v7i2.11140 ? Nepal Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology / Vol 7 / No. 2 / Issue 14 / July-Dec, 2012 / 33-35
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