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Role of Arthropods in Maintaining Soil Fertility
Thomas W. Culliney
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3040629
Abstract: In terms of species richness, arthropods may represent as much as 85% of the soil fauna. They comprise a large proportion of the meso- and macrofauna of the soil. Within the litter/soil system, five groups are chiefly represented: Isopoda, Myriapoda, Insecta, Acari, and Collembola, the latter two being by far the most abundant and diverse. Arthropods function on two of the three broad levels of organization of the soil food web: they are plant litter transformers or ecosystem engineers. Litter transformers fragment, or comminute, and humidify ingested plant debris, which is deposited in feces for further decomposition by micro-organisms, and foster the growth and dispersal of microbial populations. Large quantities of annual litter input may be processed (e.g., up to 60% by termites). The comminuted plant matter in feces presents an increased surface area to attack by micro-organisms, which, through the process of mineralization, convert its organic nutrients into simpler, inorganic compounds available to plants. Ecosystem engineers alter soil structure, mineral and organic matter composition, and hydrology. The burrowing by arthropods, particularly the subterranean network of tunnels and galleries that comprise termite and ant nests, improves soil porosity to provide adequate aeration and water-holding capacity below ground, facilitate root penetration, and prevent surface crusting and erosion of topsoil. Also, the movement of particles from lower horizons to the surface by ants and termites aids in mixing the organic and mineral fractions of the soil. The feces of arthropods are the basis for the formation of soil aggregates and humus, which physically stabilize the soil and increase its capacity to store nutrients.
A Critique of Recent Criticisms of Freud on Religious Belief  [PDF]
Thomas W Smythe
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2011.11002
Abstract: The paper is a critique of recent criticisms of Sigmund Freud’s theory that religion is based on wishful thinking. The criticisms made by authors such as Alvin Plantinga, John Hick, William P. Alston, William Rowe, and Merol Westphal are critically examined. I defend Freud’s critique of religion as a satisfaction of our deepest desires for a heavenly father showing inductively that those desires render religious belief as unlikely to be true.
My Body: Is It Me?  [PDF]
Thomas W. Smythe
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.23027
Abstract: In this paper I will take the term “my” in the phrase “my body” to be typically used to refer to the self or person whose body it is. This raises a problem for materialism over how a body can own or have itself. I will articulate some ways in which we are and are not related to our bodies, and try to undo the linquistic knot of a body owning itself.
Kant on Self-Awareness  [PDF]
Thomas W. Smythe
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.34077
Abstract: This paper has three main parts. First, I discuss Kant on self-awareness in terms of inner sense, why he failed to make this account coherent, and why he failed to give such an account. Second, I give two reasons why such an account is bound to be inadequate. In the last section, I discuss another attempt Kant was tempted to give in terms of transcendental self-awareness involving a nonsensory intuitive perception that helps solve some of his problems.
An Investigation of the Effect of the Swamping Phenomenon on Several Block Procedures for Multiple Outliers in Univariate Samples  [PDF]
Thomas W. Woolley
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2013.35035
Abstract:

In its broadest sense, this paper reviews the general outlier problem, the means available for addressing the discordancy (or lack thereof) of an outlier (or outliers), and possible strategies for dealing with them. Two alternate approaches to the multiple outlier problem, consecutive and block testing, and their respective inherent weaknesses, masking and swamping, are discussed. In addition, the relative susceptibility of several tests for outliers in normal samples to the swamping phenomena is reported.

Voluntary Control of Desire  [PDF]
Thomas W. Smythe
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2016.61010
Abstract: In this paper, I will investigate whether there is any way in which our desires or wants are under our voluntary control. I shall argue that even if our desires are not under our voluntary control, there are still significantly many cases in which we can properly be blamed, praised, or upbraided for having certain desires.
The Changing of the Gods: Religion, Religious Transformation and the Indian Immigrant Experience  [PDF]
Thomas W. Segady, Swati Shirwadkar
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.24055
Abstract: The Durkheimian notion that there is a close correspondence between the type of religion within a society and the structure of the society itself is now taken to be nearly axiomatic. As societies become increasingly dynamic and fragmented, however, the nexus between religion and society becomes far more complex. With globalization and widespread movements of populations struggling to maintain their identities within the contexts of both the old and new societies, changes of religion—including religious affiliation and religiosity—are inevitable. Cultural and social aspects of these changes are explored with reference to Indians migrating to the United States.
De mythe van de Spaanse inquisitie in de Nederlanden van de zestiende eeuw
W. Thomas
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 1990,
Abstract:
Y. Rodríguez Pérez, De Tachtigjarige Oorlog in Spaanse ogen. De Nederlanden in Spaanse historische en literaire teksten (circa 1548-1673)
W. Thomas
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 2004,
Abstract:
J. Tulkens, In de ban van Mohammed. Het levensverhaal van de Diestenaar Nicolaes Cleynaerts, een 16de-eeuwse humanist en islamkenner. Een historische reconstructie
W. Thomas
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 1995,
Abstract:
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