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Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Male Control in Washington State (USA) Apple Orchards Treated with Different Source Densities of Several Attracticide Formulations
Curkovic,Tomislav; F. Brunner,Jay;
Agricultura Técnica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072007000100003
Abstract: this is the first report on attracticides loaded with 1.6 or 16% pheromone, with or without 6% permethrin, tested for choristoneura rosaceana (harris) and pandemis pyrusana kearfott male control. different densities of attracticide sources (750-3,600 droplets ha-1) homogeneously applied on the canopy were compared in apple (malus pumila mill.) orchards. before attracticide application, no differences in male captures using pheromone baited trap were observed. afterwards, a significant reduction of captures occurred along with the increasing pheromone concentration, when larger density sources were used. the addition of permethrin into the attracticide formulation, however, did not significantly improve the reduction of males. overall, these results suggest that mating disruption or other mechanism, instead of the killing effect attributed to attracticides, controlled males. the attracticide formulations matrix reported is suggested to be tested as an alternative to the current ones used for mating disruption.? it is suggested to test the attracticide formulation matrix reported as an alternative to the current ones used for mating distuption.
Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Male Control in Washington State (USA) Apple Orchards Treated with Different Source Densities of Several Attracticide Formulations Control de Machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) en Huertos de Manzanos del Estado de Washington (EE.UU.) Tratados con Diferentes Densidades de Varias Formulaciones Atracticidas
Tomislav Curkovic,Jay F. Brunner
Agricultura Técnica , 2007,
Abstract: This is the first report on attracticides loaded with 1.6 or 16% pheromone, with or without 6% permethrin, tested for Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott male control. Different densities of attracticide sources (750-3,600 droplets ha-1) homogeneously applied on the canopy were compared in apple (Malus pumila Mill.) orchards. Before attracticide application, no differences in male captures using pheromone baited trap were observed. Afterwards, a significant reduction of captures occurred along with the increasing pheromone concentration, when larger density sources were used. The addition of permethrin into the attracticide formulation, however, did not significantly improve the reduction of males. Overall, these results suggest that mating disruption or other mechanism, instead of the killing effect attributed to attracticides, controlled males. The attracticide formulations matrix reported is suggested to be tested as an alternative to the current ones used for mating disruption. It is suggested to test the attracticide formulation matrix reported as an alternative to the current ones used for mating distuption. éste es el primer informe del control de machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) y Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott con atracticidas que contengan 1,6 ó 16% de feromona, con o sin permetrina al 6%. Se compararon diferentes densidades de atracticidas (750-3.600 gotas ha-1), aplicadas homogéneamente en la copa de los manzanos (Malus pumila Mill.). Antes de los tratamientos no se observaron diferencias estadísticas en las capturas en trampas cebadas con feromona. Después de aplicar los tratamientos, se observó una reducción significativa en las capturas, al usar mayores concentraciones de feromona y mayores densidades de gotas por hectárea. La incorporación de permetrina en la formulación atracticida no mejoró su actividad en el control de machos. En general, los resultados sugieren que un efecto similar a la confusión de cópula, en lugar de un efecto letal atribuible al atracticida, o bien otro mecanismo, controló a los machos de estas especies. La matriz grasosa usada en la formulación atracticida se sugiere como una alternativa para ser probada respecto de las formulaciones actualmente usadas para confusión de cópula
EVALUACIóN DE UNA FORMULACIóN ATRACTICIDA PARA CONTROL DE Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) EN MANZANOS EN EL ESTADO DE WASHINGTON, EEUU
Curkovic S.,Tomislav; Brunner,Jay F.;
Agricultura Técnica , 2003, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072003000300002
Abstract: cydia pomonella control and male attraction of an attracticide (sirene?cm: 0.16% codlemone + 6% permethrin) were evaluated. the attracticide had a long-lasting attraction (> 80 days) for males to regular traps. only a small proportion of males (< 11%) approaching the attracticide (n = 64) was observed contacting the source. the attractant was significantly less attractive (cumulative captures in a 20 day field test) when compared with regular lures. treatments with 3,000 drops (approximately 50 m l per drop) of attracticide per hectare and 1,200 emitters per hectare to disrupt mating, equally reduced the captures of c. pomonella in traps (92% suppression). the control had significantly greater captures (87% of the total), while in the attracticide treatment only 7% were captured. however, apple fruit (malus domestica borkh.) damaged by c. pomonella at harvest was not statistically different between the attracticide (29%), mating disruption (35%), or control treatments (41%), although it was significantly greater in the upper canopy (> 2.5 m).
EVALUACIóN DE UNA FORMULACIóN ATRACTICIDA PARA CONTROL DE Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) EN MANZANOS EN EL ESTADO DE WASHINGTON, EEUU Assessment of an attracticide formulation to control Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards in Washington State, USA.
Tomislav Curkovic S.,Jay F. Brunner
Agricultura Técnica , 2003,
Abstract: Se evaluó la actividad de un atracticida (Sirene CM: 0,16% codlemone + 6% permetrina) en el control y atracción de machos de Cydia pomonella. Los machos fueron atraídos por un período prolongado (> 80 días) hacia las trampas con el atracticida. Sólo una peque a proporción (< 11%) de machos aproximándose al atracticida (n = 64) fueron observados contactándolo. Su capacidad de atracción en el campo fue significativamente menor (en capturas acumuladas) que la de atrayentes estándar durante una evaluación de 20 días. Tratamientos con 3.000 gotas (aproximadamente 50 my L por gota) de atracticida por hectárea y 1.200 emisores para confusión de cópula por hectárea, redujeron similarmente las capturas de C. pomonella en trampas (92% de supresión). El control sin tratar presentó capturas significativamente mayores (87% del total), mientras que en el tratamiento atracticida se capturó sólo el 7%. El da o en manzanas (Malus domestica Borkh.) a cosecha, sin embargo, fue estadísticamente similar entre los tres tratamientos (atracticida = 29%, confusión de cópula = 35%, control = 41%), aunque resultó mayor en la canopia superior (> 2,5 m). Cydia pomonella control and male attraction of an attracticide (Sirene CM: 0.16% codlemone + 6% permethrin) were evaluated. The attracticide had a long-lasting attraction (> 80 days) for males to regular traps. Only a small proportion of males (< 11%) approaching the attracticide (n = 64) was observed contacting the source. The attractant was significantly less attractive (cumulative captures in a 20 day field test) when compared with regular lures. Treatments with 3,000 drops (approximately 50 mu L per drop) of attracticide per hectare and 1,200 emitters per hectare to disrupt mating, equally reduced the captures of C. Pomonella in traps (92% suppression). The control had significantly greater captures (87% of the total), while in the attracticide treatment only 7% were captured. However, apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) damaged by C. pomonella at harvest was not statistically different between the attracticide (29%), mating disruption (35%), or control treatments (41%), although it was significantly greater in the upper canopy (> 2.5 m).
Toxicity of Field-Aged Permethrin-Loaded Attracticides on Choristoneura rosaceana (HARRIS) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Adult Males and Females
Curkovic,Tomislav; Brunner,Jay F; J. Brown,John;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392009000100003
Abstract: lethal and sub lethal effects were evaluated in the laboratory on choristoneura rosaceana (harris) and pandemis pyrusana kearfott males exposed to an attracticide loaded with permethrin and aged in the field. the effect of pairing conspecific females with previously intoxicated males was also evaluated. in both species a significantly greater mortality of male moths (≥ 95%) was observed 24 h after exposure to t he attracticide formulation. likewise, high levels of knock down (≥ 75%) were observed in males of both species 1 h after attracticide exposure. in females, knock down was ≥ 2.5% and mortality ≥ 3.3% after pairing with intoxicated males. leg autotomy in males was at least 73% in c. rosaceana and ≥ 41% in p. pyrusana, 24 h after attracticide exposure; whereas it was only ≥ 10% among females of both species after pairing with intoxicated males. moths exposed to an attracticide blank (permethrin-free) showed significantly lower effects in all parameters (0-3.3%). fecundity and fertility were also significantly affected after pairing females with intoxicated males. there was no significant decrease in mortality, leg autotomy, and fecundity associated with age of the attracticide. results suggest a high potential for the use of attracticides against these two tortricid species.
Toxicity of Field-Aged Permethrin-Loaded Attracticides on Choristoneura rosaceana (HARRIS) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Adult Males and Females Toxicidad de Atracticidas en Base a Permetrina Envejecidos en Campo, sobre Machos y Hembras Adultas de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
Tomislav Curkovic,Jay F Brunner,John J. Brown
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2009,
Abstract: Lethal and sub lethal effects were evaluated in the laboratory on Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott males exposed to an attracticide loaded with permethrin and aged in the field. The effect of pairing conspecific females with previously intoxicated males was also evaluated. In both species a significantly greater mortality of male moths (≥ 95%) was observed 24 h after exposure to t he attracticide formulation. Likewise, high levels of knock down (≥ 75%) were observed in males of both species 1 h after attracticide exposure. In females, knock down was ≥ 2.5% and mortality ≥ 3.3% after pairing with intoxicated males. Leg autotomy in males was at least 73% in C. rosaceana and ≥ 41% in P. pyrusana, 24 h after attracticide exposure; whereas it was only ≥ 10% among females of both species after pairing with intoxicated males. Moths exposed to an attracticide blank (permethrin-free) showed significantly lower effects in all parameters (0-3.3%). Fecundity and fertility were also significantly affected after pairing females with intoxicated males. There was no significant decrease in mortality, leg autotomy, and fecundity associated with age of the attracticide. Results suggest a high potential for the use of attracticides against these two tortricid species. Los efectos letales y subletales sobre machos de Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott expuestos a un atracticida basado en permetrina, envejecido en condiciones de campo, fueron evaluados en laboratorio. También se evaluó el efecto de emparejar hembras conespecíficas con machos previamente intoxicados. En ambas especies se observó mortalidad de machos significativamente mayor (≥ 95%) 24 h post exposición al atracticida. Asimismo, altos niveles de “volteo” de individuos (≥ 75%) se observaron en machos de ambas especies 1 h post exposición al atracticida. En hembras, el nivel de “volteo” fue ≥ 2,5% y la mortalidad ≥ 3,3% luego del emparejamiento con machos intoxicados. Veinticuatro h post exposición el nivel de auto amputación de patas en machos expuestos al atracticida fue al menos 73% en C. rosaceana y ≥ 41% en P. pyrusana, mientras que fue ≥ 10% entre hembras de ambas especies luego del emparejamiento con machos intoxicados. Las polillas expuestas a un atracticida “blanco” (sin permetrina) mostraron niveles significativamente menores en todos los parámetros evaluados (0-3,3%). La fecundidad y fertilidad también fueron significativamente afectadas por el emparejamiento con machos intoxicados. No se observó una reducción significativa en la mortalidad,
Excised Leaf Bioassay: Phenotypic Expression of Natural Resistance in Apple against the Obliquebanded Leafroller  [PDF]
Joseph J. Schwarz, Jay F. Brunner
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2017.51001
Abstract: Different approaches were assessed in the development of a bioassay method that would provide data necessary to evaluate resistance of apple genotypes to the obliquebanded leafroller (OBLR) Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris). A leaf disc method used to evaluate the impact of pesticides on leafrollers resulted in high levels of leaf-abandonment of first and second instar larvae. Inserting leaf petioles into water soaked Oasis foam resulted in a significant reduction in overall leaf weight and diminished the appearance of leaf quality. When leaf petioles were inserted into water-filled Eppendorf vials, leaf weight increased and overall leaf quality appeared to be good. We opted to adopt this latter whole-leaf bioassay method, which though very time consuming, provided a robust assessment of OBLR life history parameters against different apple genotypes. Across all apple genotypes evaluated, male larvae developed faster than females to pupation as well as to adulthood, while females developed faster as pupae and were heavier than male pupae. OBLR larvae reared on leaves from different apple genotypes displayed significant variability in development time, pupal weight, larval survivorship, and number of offspring produced. We utilized three indices to characterize host acceptance, sub-lethal effects, and lethal effects of OBLR to apple genotypes. Our results indicated that ‘Lady’, ‘Viking’, and ‘Northern Spy’ show some of the highest levels of resistance against OBLR, while ‘Granny Smith’ was quite susceptible to OBLR and could be used in future studies identifying apple genotypes with relative resistance to OBLR.
Effect of the Trace Anomaly on the Cosmological Constant
Jurjen F. Koksma,Tomislav Prokopec
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.78.023508
Abstract: It has been argued that the quantum (conformal) trace anomaly could potentially provide us with a dynamical explanation of the cosmological constant problem. In this paper, however, we show by means of a semiclassical analysis that the trace anomaly does not affect the cosmological constant. We construct the effective action of the conformal anomaly for flat FLRW spacetimes consisting of local quadratic geometric curvature invariants. Counterterms are thus expected to influence the numerical value of the coefficients in the trace anomaly and we must therefore allow these parameters to vary. We calculate the evolution of the Hubble parameter in quasi de Sitter spacetime, where we restrict our Hubble parameter to vary slowly in time, and in FLRW spacetimes. We show dynamically that a Universe consisting of matter with a constant equation of state, a cosmological constant and the quantum trace anomaly evolves either to the classical de Sitter attractor or to a quantum trace anomaly driven one. When considering the trace anomaly truncated to quasi de Sitter spacetime, we find a region in parameter space where the quantum attractor destabilises. When considering the exact expression of the trace anomaly, a stability analysis shows that whenever the trace anomaly driven attractor is stable, the classical de Sitter attractor is unstable, and vice versa. Semiclassically, the trace anomaly does not affect the classical late time de Sitter attractor and hence it does not solve the cosmological constant problem.
Fermion Propagator in Cosmological Spaces with Constant Deceleration
Jurjen F. Koksma,Tomislav Prokopec
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/26/12/125003
Abstract: We calculate the fermion propagator in FLRW spacetimes with constant deceleration $q=\epsilon-1$, $\epsilon=-\dot{H}/H^{2}$ for excited states. For fermions whose mass is generated by a scalar field through a Yukawa coupling $m=g_{\mathrm{\scriptscriptstyle{Y}}} \phi$, we assume $\phi \propto H$. We first solve for the mode functions by splitting the spinor into a direct product of helicity and chirality spinors. We also allow for non-vacuum states. We normalise the spinors using a consistent canonical quantisation and by requiring orthogonality of particle and anti-particle spinors. We apply our propagator to calculate the one loop effective action and renormalise using dimensional regularisation. Since the Hubble parameter is now treated dynamically, this paves the way to study the dynamical backreaction of fermions on the background spacetime.
The Cosmological Constant and Lorentz Invariance of the Vacuum State
Jurjen F. Koksma,Tomislav Prokopec
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: One hope to solve the cosmological constant problem is to identify a symmetry principle, based on which the cosmological constant can be reduced either to zero, or to a tiny value. Here, we note that requiring that the vacuum state is Lorentz invariant significantly reduces the theoretical value of the vacuum energy density. Hence, this also reduces the discrepancy between the observed value of the cosmological constant and its theoretical expectation, down from 123 orders of magnitude to 56 orders of magnitude. We find that, at one loop level, massless particles do not yield any contribution to the cosmological constant. Another important consequence of Lorentz symmetry is stabilization of the gravitational hierarchy: the cosmological constant (divided by Newton's constant) does not run as the quartic power of the renormalization group scale, but instead only logarithmically.
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