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Green Tea as an Agricultural Based Health Promoting Food: The Past Five to Ten Years
Qin-Yin Shi,Vicki Schlegel
Agriculture , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture2040393
Abstract: The consumption of tea originated in ancient China over 4000 years ago and is currently the second most popular beverage in the world after water. Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. The link between tea intake, most notably green tea, and health has resulted in intense research on the components responsible for preventing the onset of several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity and diabetes. In particular, the high levels of chemically diverse phenols (e.g., phenolic acids, flavonoids) present in tea exhibit potent protective properties against many of these diseases. Although health related research on green tea and its predominant phenol (catechins) has been on-going for decades, major advances have occurred in the last 5–10 years. Therefore, this review focuses on seminal studies reported primarily within the last five years but not extending past ten years on the link between health and green tea with an emphasis on the catechins.
Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health
Cristiane R. S. Camara,Carlos A. Urrea,Vicki Schlegel
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3010090
Abstract: Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides) that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.
Resistant Starches Types 2 and 4 Have Differential Effects on the Composition of the Fecal Microbiota in Human Subjects
Inés Martínez,Jaehyoung Kim,Patrick R. Duffy,Vicki L. Schlegel,Jens Walter
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015046
Abstract: To systematically develop dietary strategies based on resistant starch (RS) that modulate the human gut microbiome, detailed in vivo studies that evaluate the effects of different forms of RS on the community structure and population dynamics of the gut microbiota are necessary. The aim of the present study was to gain a community wide perspective of the effects of RS types 2 (RS2) and 4 (RS4) on the fecal microbiota in human individuals.
Clinical Trial Phases  [PDF]
Vicki L. Mahan
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.521175
Abstract:
Developers of drugs, biologicals, and medical devices must ensure product safety, demonstrate medical benefit in people, and mass produce the product. Preclinical development starts before clinical trials and the main goals are to determine safety and effectiveness of the intervention. If preclinical studies show that the therapy is safe and effective, clinical trials are started. Clinical trial phases are steps in the research to determine if an intervention would be beneficial or detrimental to humans and include Phases 0, I, II, III, IV, and V clinical studies. Understanding the basis of clinical trial phases will help researchers plan and implement clinical study protocols and, by doing so, improve the number of therapies coming to market for patients.
Radiation resistance genes discovered
Vicki Glaser
Genome Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20011129-01
Abstract: A screen of mutant yeast cells identified 107 new genes that affect sensitivity to ionizing radiation. This discovery more than triples the number of genetic loci believed to play a role in DNA repair and the related functions that are induced by radiation damage. More than half of these new yeast genes appear to have a homolog in the human gene pool, and 17 of those have been linked to various cancers.These genes may determine how well cells are able to survive exposure to radiation, and may even help predict sensitivity to other DNA-damaging agents, such as anti-cancer drugs. It is the ability to target these genes during the drug discovery process that could lead to the development of more effective chemotherapeutics.An important and unexpected finding of this study is that many of the newly identified radiation-resistance genes fall into functional groups not previously linked to genetic repair mechanisms. Many of them affect cell replication, recombination, and cell-cycle checkpoint functions - traditional pathways linked to the repair of nicks and breaks in the DNA. But others appear to be involved in a variety of cellular activities including chromatin remodeling, chromosome segregation, nuclear pore formation, transcription, Golgi/vacuolar activities, ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation, cytokinesis, mitochondrial activity and cell-wall maintenance."I only expected to find a few more [genes] and expected them to be related to a DNA metabolic effect," said Michael Resnick, from the Laboratory of Genetics at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, a senior author of the study. "The discovery that genes involved in transcription and protein synthesis play a role in radiation sensitivity was quite a surprise", continued Resnick.Also surprising was the observation that mutations in genes that make nuclear pore proteins were essential for survival in radiation-damaged yeast. These proteins define the structure of nuclear pores, which control th
PREHISTORIC ETHNICITY AND STATUS BASED ON TEXTILE EVIDENCE FROM ARICA, CHILE
Cassman,Vicki;
Chungará (Arica) , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562000000200016
Abstract: several scholars have hypothesized the existence of chiefdoms and multiethnic stratified social systems in the prehistoric coastal oases of northern chile. the present research, using textiles associated with 436 mummies from three sites (az-140, az-71 and plm-9) in arica, chile, has allowed for a reevaluation of the social organization and the development of a new chronology. textiles associated with the mummies were analyzed for yarn characteristics, weave, dyes, surface embellishments, form, repair and overall style. also, a quality score was calculated for each textile. contrary to expectations, the textiles, especially shirts, indicated the individuals studied were not ethnically diverse, since an assortment of shirt styles was found at all three sites, and many individuals had a variety of these styles. status was evaluated using textile quality scores and qualities of nontextile grave goods. status differences were evident but were not extreme, and it is suggested that achieved status existed but not ascribed rank. finally, based on thirty-two new radiocarbon dates it appears the cultures once known, respectively as cabuza, maitas, san miguel, loreto viejo and regional development were not successive temporally, but represent overlapping styles of the same group of people living in arica from ad 900 to 1400
Desafiando os limites da cidadania da Uni?o Europeia: as disputas dos grupos roma acerca da (i)mobilidade
Squire, Vicki;
Contexto Internacional , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-85292011000100005
Abstract: this article examines recent struggles over the mobility of roma across europe in terms of the insights that these provide into the limits of european union (eu) citizenship. showing how the struggle to deport and contain roma citizens across member states of the union reflect a broader series of limits regarding eu citizenship, the analysis questions any simplistic assumptions regarding the progressiveness of european citizenship over national citizenship. rather, it points to the constitutive tensions between citizenship as derivative of the nationstate and citizenship as formed through free movement provisions, and reads these tensions as important in understanding the conditions under which contestations of the limitations of eu citizenship emerge. focusing specifically on the struggles of roma and sinti activists in italy, the article goes on to suggest that questions of mobility are critical to the transformation of european citizenship through 'acts of citizenship' that contest the limits of an eu citizenship regime. this is not understood in the sense that free movement automatically or inevitably rights the wrongs of territorial or nationally-inscribed regimes by including those who are excluded. rather, the article argues that mobilisations of roma around mobility are important both in contesting the internal differentiations of eu citizenship, as well as in reconfiguring the limits through which such a regime is inscribed as such. this occurs through acts whereby exclusionary processes such as criminalisation are transformed into claims to social justice. such claims might be said to take on new significance when developed at the european scale, since claims to social justice in this regard become 'transnational' in the scope of their enactment. however, the transnational cannot be understood in a fixed or spatially-contained sense when viewed through the lens of mobility, but is perhaps better understood as a means of questioning received ways of thinkin
Response by Vicki Thorson on "The Nursing Shortage: Is This Cycle Different?"
Vicki Thorson
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2004,
Abstract:
Opening the Dialogue for Indigenous Knowledges Developments in Australia
Vicki Grieves
Cultural Studies Review , 2011,
Abstract: A review of Martin Nakata, Disciplining the Savages, Savaging the Disciplines (Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, 2007).
PREHISTORIC ETHNICITY AND STATUS BASED ON TEXTILE EVIDENCE FROM ARICA, CHILE
Vicki Cassman
Chungará (Arica) - Revista de Antropología Chilena , 2000,
Abstract: Several scholars have hypothesized the existence of chiefdoms and multiethnic stratified social systems in the prehistoric coastal oases of Northern Chile. The present research, using textiles associated with 436 mummies from three sites (AZ-140, AZ-71 and PLM-9) in Arica, Chile, has allowed for a reevaluation of the social organization and the development of a new chronology. Textiles associated with the mummies were analyzed for yarn characteristics, weave, dyes, surface embellishments, form, repair and overall style. Also, a quality score was calculated for each textile. Contrary to expectations, the textiles, especially shirts, indicated the individuals studied were not ethnically diverse, since an assortment of shirt styles was found at all three sites, and many individuals had a variety of these styles. Status was evaluated using textile quality scores and qualities of nontextile grave goods. Status differences were evident but were not extreme, and it is suggested that achieved status existed but not ascribed rank. Finally, based on thirty-two new radiocarbon dates it appears the cultures once known, respectively as Cabuza, Maitas, San Miguel, Loreto Viejo and Regional Development were not successive temporally, but represent overlapping styles of the same group of people living in Arica from AD 900 to 1400 Diversos investigadores han postulado la existencia en la prehistoria de sistemas sociales estratificados y multietnico en las áreas costeras del norte de Chile. El presente estudio, utilizando los textiles de 436 momias de tres sitios (Az-140, Az-71 y Plm-9) en Arica, Chile, ha permitido una reevaluación de la organización social y el desarrollo de una cronología nueva. Los textiles asociados con las momias fueron analizados en cuanto a las características de la lana, el tejido, las tintas, los embellecimientos de las superficies, la forma, la reparación y el estilo. También se calculó un puntaje de calidad para cada textil. Al contrario de las expectativas, los textiles, especialmente las camisas, indicaron que los individuos estudiados no eran étnicamente diversos, debido a que se encontró un surtido de estilos de camisas en los tres sitios y muchos individuos tenían una variedad de estilos. El estatus fue evaluado usando la calidad de textiles y las cantidades de bienes funerarios no textiles. Las diferencias de estatus fueron evidentes, pero no extremas, sugiriendo que existía el estatus adquirido, pero no el rango adscrito. Finalmente, a base de 32 fechas radiocarbónicas, parece que las culturas conocidas como Cabuza, Maitas, San Miguel,
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