OALib Journal期刊

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Evaluation of CO2 Application Requirements for On-Farm Mass Depopulation of Swine in a Disease Emergency
Larry Stikeleather,William Morrow,Robert Meyer,Craig Baird,Burt Halbert
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3040599
Abstract: When an emergency swine disease outbreak, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), occurs, it will be necessary to rapidly and humanely depopulate and dispose of infected and susceptible pigs to limit viral replications and disease spread. Methods other than handling individual pigs will be required to achieve the necessary rapidity. Suitable and practical on-farm methods will require depopulating large numbers of pigs at a time outside confinement buildings. The process must be easily implemented with readily available materials and equipment, while providing for the safety and well-being of personnel. Carbon dioxide gas (CO 2) is the means of choice, and this study analyzed the methods and requirements for delivering the gas into large volume truck bodies, corrals, dumpsters or other such chambers that may be used. The issues studied included: How the gas should be introduced to achieve the needed spatial distribution; whether plenums are required in the chambers; and the importance of sealing all chamber cracks and edges except around the top cover to limit CO 2 dilution and leakage. Analysis was done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, and primary results were verified experimentally. The CFD findings and experimental results are compared, and recommendations are discussed.
Association between Children’s Saving Account and Parent Rated Children’s Health: A Preliminary Study  [PDF]
Anao Zhang, Zibei Chen, Kaipeng Wang, William Elliott, So’phelia Morrow
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2020.101001
Abstract: Children’s Savings Accounts (CSAs) are interventions designed to build educational assets for school-age children. The positive effects of having a CSA has been established for mental health and developmental outcomes, yet no studies to date have examined how CSAs affect children’s physical health. This study uses data from Harold Alfond College Challenge, the oldest and one of the most well-known CSA programs in the United States, to evaluate the association between a CSA and children’s physical health status measured by parent-rated children’s health. Results indicate CSA ownership is associated with a greater chance of reporting excellent or very good health than those families who did not receive a CSA. Implications on research and CSA programs are discussed.
Magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis, staging, and follow-up
M Morrow
Breast Cancer Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2263
Abstract: A benefit for MRI in the follow-up of the breast cancer patient is also unproven. Local recurrence after BCS and RT is uncommon, occurring in fewer than 8% of patients at 10 years. The size of the local recurrence is not a prognostic factor, and the idea that early detection will improve prognosis does not reflect the biology of local recurrence. The treatment of local recurrence regardless of size is mastectomy, and salvage mastectomy results in local control in 85 to 95% of patients. These good outcomes must be weighed against the cost of MRI, the high rate of short-interval follow-up and biopsies generated, and the lack of a clear rationale for using the examination for follow-up.
Decision making in local therapy for breast cancer
Monica Morrow
Breast Cancer Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1806
Abstract: The mean patient age was 60 years and 70% were white. Less than a high school level of education was reported by 27%; 61% graduated from high school or had some college education, and 13% were college graduates. The mastectomy rate was 30% for patients with both DCIS and invasive cancer. Accepted clinical contraindications to breast-conserving surgery were reported by 11.5% of the study population. In 41% of cases the patient reported that she was the primary decision maker, the decision was shared in 37%, and was made by the surgeon in 22% of cases. The therapy recommended by the surgeon was breast-conserving surgery in 49%, mastectomy in 15%, and patients reported being offered a choice between the two procedures in 37% of cases. Greater patient involvement in the decision-making process was significantly correlated with treatment by mastectomy after adjustment for multiple clinical and demographic variables. Only 5.8% of women whose surgeon made the treatment decision had a mastectomy, as compared with 16.8% who reported a shared decision and 27% of women who reported that they made the decision (P = 0.003).Concern about disease recurrence was the most influential factor in treatment choice, with 40% of women reporting that their treatment choice was greatly influenced by this concern. Concerns about disease recurrence were strongly associated with receipt of mastectomy; 52% of women who were greatly concerned about disease recurrence received a mastectomy, as compared with 19% of those who were not influenced, or only slightly influenced, by this concern (P < 0.001) [1].Patients expressed a high level of confidence in decision making, with more than 80% of women of all ages being very or extremely confident about their treatment choice. However, fewer than 50% were able to answer correctly a true-false question about the lack of a survival difference after treatment by mastectomy or lumpectomy and radiation.We also examined the match between decision control and
Personalized surgical treatment of breast cancer
Monica Morrow
Breast Cancer Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1810
Abstract: During the past decade, substantial strides have been made in the application of personalized surgical therapy, with the majority of women now being offered a choice between mastectomy alone, mastectomy with immediate reconstruction, or breast-conserving therapy (BCT), consisting of lumpectomy and radiation. Multiple prospective randomized trials have shown no difference in survival between patients treated with BCT and those undergoing mastectomy, even after long-term follow up. Selection criteria for BCT have been defined [1] and are related to the extent of disease within the breast and the ability to administer radiotherapy safely. Contraindications to BCT are as follows: first and second trimester of pregnancy; inability to achieve negative margins of resection; multicentric cancer; diffuse suspicious or indeterminate microcalcifications; and history of prior irradiation to breast region. Interestingly, biological factors such as hormone receptor status, HER2 over-expression, tumour grade and other histological features, and node status are not useful criteria for identifying women best treated by mastectomy. Adhering to the BCT contraindications given above, local control rates of greater than 90% at 10 years are now obtained in patients receiving adjuvant systemic therapy [2].The use of gene profiles to predict the risk for systemic recurrence [3] has raised interest in the role of these profiles in identifying patients at high risk for local recurrence when treated with BCT. Mamounas and coworkers [4] examined the ability of the 21-gene recurrence score (Oncotype Dx?; Genomic Health Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA) to identify groups of women with different risks for locoregional recurrence (LRR). The 21-gene recurrence score has been shown to be both prognostic and predictive of the benefit of adding chemotherapy to tamoxifen. In a retrospective study using material from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) treatment trials, statistically
How much can improved molecular and pathologic discriminants change local therapy?
Monica Morrow
Breast Cancer Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2165
Abstract: How accurately the extent of disease is assessed with currently available tools can be evaluated by examining mastectomy rates in patients who are initially selected for BCT and the use of re-excision to obtain negative margins in patients undergoing BCT. The available data indicate that disease too extensive to allow BCT is reliably identified with clinical evaluation, diagnostic mammography and ultrasonography. Morrow and coworkers reported that only 2.9% of 263 patients selected for BCT between 1989 and 1993 required conversion to mastectomy [2]. In a population-based study conducted in 800 patients from the Los Angeles and Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Registry (SEER) treated between June 2005 and May 2006, 12% of patients were converted from BCT to mastectomy [3]. However, in 8% this conversion took place after a single lumpectomy attempt, suggesting that re-excision would have allowed successful BCT in some of these cases. In contrast to the low rate of conversion from BCT to mastectomy, re-excision to obtain negative margins is a common surgical procedure. In the population-based study 22% of patients required re-excision [3], and in some studies the rate of re-excision approaches 50% [4]. These findings suggest that a more precise definition of microscopic extent of disease with molecular tools would facilitate surgical excision. Although this idea is attractive, it is associated with major pitfalls, illustrated by experience with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast.MRI is well documented to be a more sensitive method for detecting cancer than mammography or ultrasound. A meta-analysis of 19 studies involving 2,763 breast cancer patients revealed that MRI detected additional disease in 16% (range 6% to 34%) that led to more extensive surgical therapy [5]. It has been assumed that these larger surgical procedures were beneficial to the patient, but more recent studies have cast doubt upon this assumption. Bleicher and coworkers
Prophylactic contralateral surgery: current recommendations and techniques
M Morrow
Breast Cancer Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2270
Abstract: Most guidelines for prophylactic mastectomy address women at high risk, not women with unilateral cancer. Known or suspected BRCA mutation carriers who develop unilateral cancer have a 40 to 60% risk of developing a contralateral cancer, and CPM is accepted as appropriate therapy in this circumstance.To address the issue of what kind of women undergo CPM, we identified 477 patients who had the procedure at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center within 1 year of a unilateral cancer diagnosis and compared them with 2,500 women undergoing unilateral mastectomy in the same period (1997 to 2005). CPM patients were younger (median 46 vs 53 years; P < 0.0001), had smaller tumors (1.2 vs 1.8 cm; P < 0.0001), and were less likely to have positive nodes (47 vs 57%; P < 0.0001). Hormone receptor and HER2 status did not differ between cases and controls. Although 68% of CPM patients reported a family history of breast cancer, only 2% underwent genetic testing. Of these, 34 (7%) were found to have a mutation. The pathology specimens of 6% of patients undergoing CPM were found to contain malignancy (eight invasive, 20 ductal carcinoma in situ).When CPM is performed, it should be done to the same anatomic limit as a therapeutic mastectomy. Skin sparing to facilitate reconstruction is appropriate, but flaps should be the same thickness as is used in a therapeutic mastectomy. The use of nipple sparing is controversial [3]. In order to maintain a blood supply to the nipple areolar complex, some breast tissue must be left behind. Most studies of local recurrence after nipple preservation have been limited to patients with breast cancer, and little is known about its use in the prophylactic setting, particularly regarding risks in BRCA carriers. However, local recurrence is uncommon after nipple sparing for cancer treatment, and improved body image and psychological adjustment after nipple sparing has been reported [3], making this option worthy of consideration in patients undergoing
Conceituando o capital social em rela??o a crian?as e jovens: é diferente para meninas?
Morrow, Virginia;
Educa??o & Sociedade , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-73302007000400005
Abstract: this paper describes a research project that explored the relevance of putnam's (1993) definition of social capital (as consisting of social networks, norms of trust, reciprocity, civic engagement and participation in communities) with children and young people in disadvantaged areas. also, the paper presents data from an empirical sociological study that attempted to explore the meaning and relevance of different aspects of "social capital" for 12-15 year olds living in two deprived areas of a town in se england. it is based on young people's descriptions of their everyday lives, and focuses on four elements: accounts of parents and the centrality of mothers; gender differences in accounts of the meaning and nature of friendship; gender differences in experiences of neighbourhood spaces and local facilities; and gender differences in young people's aspirations for the future.
Library Association News from Across Canada
Leeanne Morrow
Partnership : the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research , 2008,
Abstract:
Library Association News from Across Canada
Leeanne Morrow
Partnership : the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research , 2007,
Abstract:
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