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Elicitors: A Tool for Improving Fruit Phenolic Content
Yolanda Ruiz-García,Encarna Gómez-Plaza
Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agriculture3010033
Abstract: Fruits are one of the most important sources of polyphenols for humans, whether they are consumed fresh or as processed products. To improve the phenolic content of fruits, a novel field of interest is based on results obtained using elicitors, agrochemicals which were primarily designed to improve resistance to plant pathogens. Although elicitors do not kill pathogens, they trigger plant defense mechanisms, one of which is to increase the levels of phenolic compounds. Therefore, their application not only allows us to control plant disease but also to increase the phenolic content of plant foodstuffs. Pre- or post-harvest application of the most commonly used elicitors to several fruits is discussed in this review.
Determinación de niveles de variabilidad genética y de números efectivos en ocho especies de primates neotropicales en Colombia mediante los microsatélites AP6, AP68, AP40, AP74, D5S111, D5S117, D6S260, D8S165, D14S51, y D17S804
Ruiz-García M.
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2001,
Abstract: El análisis de 8 especies de primates neotropicales directamente muestreados en el campo (Cebus albifrons, Cebus apella, Cebus capucinus, Saimiri sciureus, Aotus nancymae, Alouatta seniculus, Ateles fusciceps y Lagothrix lagotricha) con 10 marcadores microsatélites reveló una serie de características genético poblacionales de todas ellas. En todas se determinó la posible existencia de equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg, desequilibrio gamético y adicionalmente, se midieron los niveles de diversidad génica (heterocigosis esperada) en las 8 especies citadas.
Parámetros genético poblacionales en seis especies de Felidae neotropicales ( Leopardus tigrina, L. wiedii, L. pardalis, Herpailurus jagouroundi, Puma concolor y Pantera onca )
Ruiz-García M.
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2001,
Abstract: Se analizaron 196 muestras pertenecientes a 68 Leopardus pardalis (Ocelote; Colombia, Perú), a12 L. wiedi (Margay; Colombia y Bolivia), a 24 L. tigrinus (Tigrillo; Colombia), a 16 Herpailurus jagouroundi (yagouroundi; Colombia, Venezuela, Brasil) a 50 Puma concolor (Puma; Colombia, Perú, Bolivia) y a 24 Panthera onca (Jaguar; Colombia) con 6 marcadores microsatélites diferentes (FCA08, FCA43, FCA45, FCA90, FCA96 y FCA126). Los resultados y conclusiones más obvias fueron las siguientes: (1) Para la mayoría de esas especies no se dio equilibrio Hardy- Weinberg cuando se analizaron individuos de localidades diferentes por exceso de homocigotos. Probablemente, el efecto Wahlund es responsable de ese hecho.
Análisis genético molecular del Oso Andino ( Tremarctos ornatus ) en el norte de los andes (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador): Una visión global
Ruiz-García M.
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2001,
Abstract: Se analizaron 82 muestras de oso andino (Tremarctos ornatus) procedentes de 3 países latinoamericanos, Venezuela, Colombia y Ecuador, mediante 5 microsatélites hipervariables (G1A, G1D, G10B, G10C y G10X). Un exhaustivo análisis genético poblacional permitió determinar los siguientes aspectos fundamentales: (1) No existencia de equilibrio Hardy-Weinberg ni en el conjunto global de muestras ni en el conjunto particular de muestras para cada uno de esos países, al utilizar los tests exactos con cadenas de Markov y con el método de Fisher.
The Kovacs effect in the one-dimensional Ising model: a linear response analysis
M. Ruiz-García,A. Prados
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.89.012140
Abstract: We analyze the so-called Kovacs effect in the one-dimensional Ising model with Glauber dynamics. We consider small enough temperature jumps, for which a linear response theory has been recently derived. Within this theory, the Kovacs hump is directly related to the monotonic relaxation function of the energy. The analytical results are compared with extensive Monte Carlo simulations, and an excellent agreement is found. Remarkably, the position of the maximum in the Kovacs hump depends on the fact that the true asymptotic behavior of the relaxation function is different from the stretched exponential describing the relevant part of the relaxation at low temperatures.
A biogeographical population genetics perspective of the colonization of cats in Latin America and temporal genetic changes in Brazilian cat populations
Ruiz-García, Manuel;Alvarez, Diana;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572008000400026
Abstract: we used nine morphological genes to analyze cat populations from mexico, the dominican republic, the colombian, brazilian and peruvian amazon, bolivia and brazil. most populations were in hardy-weinberg equilibrium at the o locus. the highest allele frequencies so far detected at world level for alleles i (inhibitor) and l (long hair) were found at la paz (bolivia). the analyses revealed at least five cat gene pools in latin america: these findings suggest that the current genetic distribution of cats in latin america correlates with the colonization of the americas during the xiv to xviii centuries. additionally, the cat populations of s?o paulo, rio de janeiro and manaus were sampled, to compare their 1996-2003 genetic profiles with those obtained in 1983. generally, these genetic profiles seem temporally stable, which is important for comparing cat populations sampled in different years and decades.
Psorophora columbiae: Estructura genética analizada mediante perfiles isoenzimáticos y secuencias SSCP e inexistencia de otras especies
Bello F.,Ruiz-García M.
Acta Biológica Colombiana , 2001,
Abstract: El análisis de tres poblaciones de mosquitos del género Psorophorafueron analizadas para losloci isoenzimáticos MDH, PGM, IDH, LAP, a-GDH, ME, HK, PGI, MPI, 6PGD y AAT y para lassecuencias obtenidas con los cebadores CP-P1A/CP-P1B con la técnica SSCP. Dos de las po-blaciones analizadas corresponden a áreas de la distribución central de la especie en Colombia(Tolima y Meta), mientras que la otra población se halla enclavada en el norte de Colombia,concretamente en el Departamento de Córdoba. Originalmente esas poblaciones se clasifica-ron como pertenecientes a Psorophora confinnis.
Evaluating the Polyphenol Profile in Three Segregating Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Populations
Alberto Hernández-Jiménez,Rocío Gil-Mu?oz,Yolanda Ruiz-García,Jose María López-Roca,Adrián Martinez-Cutillas,Encarna Gómez-Plaza
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/572896
Abstract: This paper explores the characteristics of the anthocyanin and flavonol composition and content in grapes from plants resulting from intraspecific crosses of Vitis vinifera varieties Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon, Monastrell × Syrah, and Monastrell × Barbera, in order to acquire information for future breeding programs. The anthocyanin and flavonol compositions of twenty-seven hybrids bearing red grapes and 15 hybrids bearing white grapes from Monastrell × Syrah, 32 red and 6 white from Monastrell × Cabernet Sauvignon, and 13 red from Monastrell × Barbera have been studied. Among the intraspecific crosses, plants with grapes presenting very high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols were found, indicating a transgressive segregation for this character, and this could lead to highly colored wines with an increased benefits for human health. As regards the qualitative composition of anthocyanins and flavonols, the hydroxylation pattern of the hybrids that also may influence wine color hue and stability presented intermediate values to those of the parentals, indicating that values higher than that showed by the best parental in this respect will be difficult to obtain. The results presented here can be helpful to acquire information for future breeding efforts, aimed at improving fruit quality through the effects of flavonoids. 1. Introduction Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of red grape varieties and the wines produced from them. Flavonols are also important because they participate both in stabilizing anthocyanins in young red wines through copigmentation and in increasing the health-related properties of wine [1, 2]. Grape anthocyanins and flavonols are final products arising from the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway (Figure 1). Vitis vinifera varieties are characterized by the presence of 3-O-glucosides of delphinidin, peonidin, petunidin, cyanidin, and malvidin, together with their acylated derivatives [3]. The 3-O-glucosides of kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin are the major flavonols in grapes as first reported by Cheynier and Rigaud [4] and recently confirmed by Castillo-Mu?oz et al. [5], with quercetin glycosides usually being dominant [5], although a high presence of quercetin-3-O-glucuronide has also been observed in some varieties such as Petit Verdot [5, 6]. Figure 1: Flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. PAL: phenyl ammonia lyase, F3′H: flavonoid-3′-hydroxylase, F3′5′H: flavonoid-3′,5′-hydroxylase, UFGT: UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase, MT: methyl transferase, DFR: dihydroxyflavanol-4-reductase, ANS: anthocyanin
Caracterización genética del puma andino boliviano (Puma concolor) en el Parque Nacional Sajama (PNS) y relaciones con otras poblaciones de pumas del noroccidente de Sudamérica
RUIZ-GARCíA,MANUEL; PACHECO,LUIS F; áLVAREZ,DIANA;
Revista chilena de historia natural , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-078X2009000100007
Abstract: twenty-five andean bolivian fecal samples were obtained for extracting dna. five different andean bolivian pumas were detected and together with three skins of animals hunted completed eight andean bolivian pumas studied here. additionally, 45 dna samples from wild pumas from colombia, peru, ecuador, venezuela and western brazilian amazon were analyzed by means of hair with roots, little pieces of skins, muscle tissues and teeth. all these 53 puma dna were genotypified for seven microsatellites (fca 08, 24, 43, 45, 96, 126 and 391). the levels of gene diversity were very high in both sample groups (h = 0.942 and 0.845, respectively), with values considerably higher than those found in the north american pumas. diverse population assignment analyses showed that the bolivian andean pumas did not form a different significant cluster from the other puma group studied. only fca 96 showed significant heterogeneity between both groups. nevertheless, globally, this heterogeneity was very small (fst, gst, rst). on the contrary, the gene flow estimates between both groups were very elevated for all the procedures performed. the estimation of the parameter θ (= 4neμ), by means of the maximum likelihood procedure of nielsen (1997), showed that the bolivian sample is a similar extension of the puma population of the other latin american countries analyzed. therefore, this study yielded strong results in favor of an unique gene pool of pumas in north western south america, in contrast with the traditional morphology and morphometric classifications which had identified a considerable number of puma subspecies in this region of latin america.
Genética poblacional de cobayas de Colombia, Cavia spp. (Rodentia: Caviidae) con marcadores moleculares RAPD
Aníbal Campos,Héctor; Ruiz-García,Manuel;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2008,
Abstract: population genetics of colombian guinea pigs, cavia spp. (rodentia: caviidae) with rapd molecular markers. the genus cavia occurs in south america, mainly in grasslands.. we collected blood samples from 97 individuals in six field populations and analyzed them with rapd molecular markers. one wild type (c. anolaimae) was differentiated from the domestic form (c. porcellus), in agreement with other authors who used morphological, osteological and karyotipic results. genetic diversity was considerable in both species, but higher in c. porcellus. the levels of genetic heterogeneity were also higher among the populations of c. porcellus (fst = 0.254) than among the populations of c. anolaimae (fst = 0.118). these significant levels of genetic heterogeneity, and the low levels of gene flow, were consistent with a complex domestication process for cavia porcellus. rev. biol. trop. 56 (3): 1481-1501. epub 2008 september 30.
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